Emilio LejitOffline

0 out of 5
0 Ratings

    I Am A S*x Addict, Friends Call Me Nymphomaniac – Says Jaypee

    2 weeks ago in BBNaija

     13 total views

    Jaypee, a Big Brother Titans housemate, has made a new revelation about herself,.

    She revealed that she is actually addicted to s*x.

    Jaypee made this known during a conversation with Ebubu on Friday.

    The nurse said her friends calls her a “Nymphomaniac.

    “I am a s*x addict, my friends call me a Nymphomaniac.

    “I love s*x. Since yesterday I have been losing my mind. I am so horny like I am going crazy.

    “I’m that girl that guys meet and realized they don’t love s*x like I do. If I am with you, you are going enjoy the benefit.”

    0
    0

    Seven Nigerian Security And Civil Defence Corps Officials Killed By Bandits In Kaduna State Buried (Photos)

    3 weeks ago in Attacks

     24 total views

    Seven personnel of the Nigeria Security and Civil Defence Corps (NSCDC) shot dead by bandits in Birnin Gwari Local Government Area of Kaduna State, have been buried.

    The officers were ambushed and killed on Monday, 9th-January, 2023, while on routine duty of protecting Kuriga mining site.

    Their corpses were handed over to families and loved ones at the NSCDC Kaduna Command after a brief interment ceremony.

    The Commandant General of the Corps, Dr. Ahmed Abubakar Audi, mni, OFR,  paid his last respect to the slain officers at the lying in state ceremony, held on Saturday, 14th-January, 2023 at the Kaduna State Command of the Corps.

    Dr Audi expressed rude shock while consoling families, friends and loved ones on the sad loss and prayed for the repose of their souls.

    Represented by the Commandant, Kaduna Command, Idris Yahaya Adah, the CG praised the efforts of the gallant officers who lost their lives in defence of the country and described them as “Heroes, never to be forgotten.”

    Addressing people during the ceremony, Dr Audi said, “they died in active service, they fought a good fight with the last drop of blood in their veins to safeguard the country. Although the loss is painful and the tears are much, but God knows best. We cannot question God; therefore, let us live right, be in peace, love and harmony with our fellow men because one day, all of us will give account to God.”

    He described the 7 personnel who died as committed and dedicated members of the Corps who will be greatly missed by colleagues and friends at work.

    “They paid the supreme price for the nation, they died for us, they are our Heroes and we shall always remember them. The world is saddened, the President and Commander in Chief is saddened, Officers and men of the Corps are also saddened. What has happened has happened, we however, look unto God, and pray for forgiveness of their sins and for acceptance on the last day,” he said.

    The CG assured families and next of kins of the deceased of timely dispatch of benefits accruable to them.

    0
    0

    Gunmen Kidnap More than 30 Passengers, NRC Staff in Edo State

    4 weeks ago in Bandits

     16 total views

    No fewer than 30 passengers and staff of the Nigerian Railway Corporation (NRC) are believed to have been victims of late Saturday’s 7th-January-2023 kidnap by gunmen at the Igueben train sub-station in Edo State.

    The Edo State Police Command Saturday night announced that scores of travellers waiting to board a train from Igueben in Igueben Local Government Area of the state to Warri in Delta State, were kidnapped by suspected herdsmen.

    The command, in a press statement endorsed by its spokesman, Chidi Nwabuzor, at about 9.55pm, stated that the incident happened at about 4.00pm Saturday.

    According to the statement, the suspected herdsmen, who were armed with AK 47 rifles, invaded the train station and shot sporadically into the air before herding unspecified number of intending travellers into the bush.

    In the process, some of the passengers, the command added, sustained bullet wounds, just as it assured Nigerians that bush combing and rescue operations had begun.

    Speaking on the development Sunday, the Liaison Officer to Igueben Local Government Area, Best Oseh, said security agencies and paramilitary organisations are combing the forests within in the area so as to rescue the victims and arrest of those behind the dastard act.

    He said: “As I speak, people are in the field all over the place, vigilante, security agencies and other people. Everybody is concerned but we have to be careful with what we divulge so that we won’t jeopardize the processes of what we are doing.

    “As for the category of people kidnapped, some of them are from Igueben, while others are passengers from other places and as for the number for now, we are looking at over 30 but we can only give comprehensive number when preliminary investigations are concluded.”

    Also, a resident in the area, Mr. Odia Benson, said the abductors released two kids who were with them, while a woman reportedly escaped.

    He said some staff of the NRC, including the station manager and ticket clerk, were among those abducted.

    According to him, “The train normally arrives by 5 pm so as at about 20 minutes to that time, bandits just came through the bush path and invaded the place. They took away the station manager, took away the booking clerk and about 29 other passengers made up of males and females.

    “As I speak with you, the Deputy Governor of the state, Philip Shaibu, left the place about an hour ago. The Commissioner of Police and his men are here, men the 4 Brigade Nigerian Army Commander are here, the Director of the Department of State Services (DSS) and some personnel and many paramilitary representatives are all here, including the DPO Igueben and his men, the Esan Akatakpa Security network. The hunters association have been in the forest since last night doing bush combing. We are hoping that by the end of today, the victims will be rescued.

    “The railway station is surrounded by forest, and there is no security, no police, no vigilante and they are at the mercy of God. The station is in Igeueben town, just about 1.2 km away from Igueben General Hospital.

    “I think only three of the victims are from Igueben; one of them is from Ward 8. We also had another who is married to an Igueben man but based in Warri while others are from Ekpoma, Uromi, Ubiaja, and elsewhere outside Edo State.

    “The kidnappers released two children, it is believed that they felt the children will slow down their movements. They dropped them in an abandoned petrol station. They called the family of the mother of the children that they should go and pick the children from the place they dropped them. One woman also escaped with her little baby. The woman escaped and found herself in Opoji  which in Esan Central Local Government Area.”

    0
    0

    Mike Adenuga’s Biography: Wives, Children, Net Worth, House, Family, Education, Parents, Wiki Facts, Mother, Business And More…

    4 weeks ago in Biography

     33 total views,  10 views today

    Chief Michael Adeniyi Agbolade Ishola Adenuga Jr CSG GCON (born 29th-April-1953) is an influential Nigerian businessman known professionally as Mike Adenuga.

    He is a billionaire and the third richest person in Africa behind Nassef Sawiris of Egypt and Aliko Dangote of Nigeria.

    He is the founder of a telecom company known as Globacom, which stands as Nigeria’s second-largest telecom operator and has a presence in other west African countries such as Ghana and Benin republic. 

    Mike Adenuga also owns stakes in the Equitorial Trust Bank and the oil exploration firm Conoil (formerly Consolidated Oil Company).

    MIKE ADENUGA


    WIKI FACTS & ABOUT DATA

    Real Name: Michael Adeniyi Agbolade Ishola Adenuga Jr
    Stage Name: Mike Adenuga
    Born: 29th-April-1953 
    Place of Birth: Ibadan, Oyo, Nigeria
    State Of Origin: Oyo State
    Nationality: Nigerian
    Height: 1.73 m
    Parents: Michael Agbolade Adenuga Sr, Juliana Oyindamola
    Siblings: Demola Adenuga, Otunba Adenuga
    Wife • Spouse: Adefolake Emilia Adenuga, Titi Joyce Adenuga
    Girlfriend • Partner: N/A
    Children: Paddy Adenuga, Bella Disu, Eniola Adenuga, Adetutu Oyindamola Emilia, Michael Babajide Adenuga, Abimbola Adenuga, Sade Adenuga, Adeniyi Adenuga, Folashade Adenuga
    Occupation: Businessman
    Net Worth: US$6.8 billion

    Early Life & Education

    Mike Adenuga was born in the city of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria, on 29 April 1953. He is of Yoruba ancestry. He has two siblings whose names are Demola Adenuga and Otunba Adenuga. Is he related to Wale Adenuga? The answer is no and there’s no verified publication to backup this claim.

    READ ALSO: Michelle Obama’s Biography: Brother, Spouse, Children, Birthday, Net Worth, Education, Height, Quotes, Wiki Facts, Parents, Achievements And More…

    His father, the Oloye Michael Agbolade Adenuga Sr, served as a school teacher, while his mother, Omoba Juliana Oyindamola Adenuga, was a businesswoman of royal Ijebu descent.

    Mike Adenuga earned his secondary school education at the Ibadan Grammar School, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria, and attended Comprehensive High School, Aiyetoro, for his Higher School Certificate (HSC). He worked as a taxi driver to help fund his university education back then.

    His hustle paid off as he graduated from Northwestern Oklahoma State University and Pace University, New York, respectively, with degrees in Business Administration.

    Career 

    Mike Adenuga made his first million in 1979, at the age of 26, selling lace and distributing soft drinks. In 1990, he was handed a drilling license. In 1991, Consolidated Oil struck oil in the shallow waters of Southwestern Ondo State, becoming the first indigenous oil company to do so in commercial quantity.

    Furthermore, he was issued a conditional GSM license in 1999, though it was revoked. Notwithstanding, he received a second one when the government-held another auction in 2003. He immediately launched a telecom company called Globacom, and operation spread quickly and started challenging telecom giant and biggest rival MTN Group in the communication Industry.

    Globacom launched its services in the Benin republic in 2008 and has continued its spread across Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire, with more licenses currently being prospected in other West African countries.

    Mike Adenuga‘s hard work did not go unnoticed as he was named African Entrepreneur of The Year at the first African Telecoms Awards (ATA) in August 2007.

    In May 2015, he made a sensational takeover bid to purchase an Ivorian mobile telecom operator Comium Côte d’Ivoire for US$600 million.

    Awards & Recognitions

    Mike Adenuga has received numerous awards, honors, and recognitions, both national and international, recognizing his great deeds. In 2012, the Globacom CEO was named the Grand Commander of the Order of the Niger (GCON) by the government of Nigeria, led by the then-president Goodluck Ebele Jonathan.

    In addition, he holds a Yoruba tribal chieftaincy as the Otunba Apesin of the Ijebu clan. In 2018, he was decorated with the insignia of a Commander of the Legion of Honour by President Emmanuel Macron of France.

    In 2019, Mike Adenuga was cited as one of the Top 100 most influential Africans by New African magazine and was named African Entrepreneur of The Year at ATA in 2007. 

    The Nigerian business mogul was also recognized with the Companion of the Star of Ghana (CSG) in 2018 and named amongst the 100 distinguished and Eminent Nigerians Centenary Awards in 2018.

    Social Media Handles

    Business mogul and owner of the telecom giant Globalcom Mike Adenuga has an active Instagram account @mikeadenuga26. 

    Personal Life 

    Mike Adenuga has two wives, Adefolake Emilia Adenuga and Titi Joyce Adenuga, with seven children (5 girls and two boys). His first wife is in between the two.

    His sons are Michael Babajide AdenugaEniola Adenuga, and Paddy Adenuga, whereas his daughters are Abimbola AdenugaAdetutu Oyindamola Emilia, and Bella Disu.

    Mike Adenuga’s children are Paddy AdenugaBella Disu, Eniola AdenugaAdetutu Oyindamola EmiliaMichael Babajide AdenugaAbimbola AdenugaSade AdenugaAdeniyi Adenuga, and Folashade Adenuga.

    Net Worth 

    Forbes has estimated Mike Adenuga‘s net worth at US$6.8 billion. He is currently the third richest man in Africa, earning his income from his oil companies, business ventures, and telecom company Globacom. 

    He also owns stakes at the Equitorial Trust Bank and the oil exploration firm Conoil (formerly Consolidated Oil Company).

    1
    0

    18 Very Important Things To Teach Your Wards/Son From A Very Tender Age

    4 weeks ago in Parenting

     24 total views

    1. Teach your kids about communication, critical thinking, and how to manage their emotions.
    2. Be a responsible father and you’ll get respect from your kids and spouse. Don’t show them weakness.
    3. Talk to your son that no one is coming to save him only he can.
    4. Instill discipline in your girl child and help her build that inner beauty of a woman (good character) which is the only thing that can determine how long she can keep a man or how long she can remain in her husbands house.
    5. At a young age, teach your kids to take responsibility. Without it, they’ll never become responsible adults.
    6. Don’t teach your kids to be perfect, teach them how to learn from mistakes.
    7. Teach your kids how to think, not what to think.
    8. Teach your son that, the only two things that can ruin him are drugs and women, teach him how to handle both.
    9. Teach your kids that life is not a zero-sum game. Approaching their worries is the secret to a more promising life.
    10. Never abandon your kids when it gets hard, that’s when they need you the most.
    11. Don’t rely on the school to teach your kids about financial literacy. Talk to them about money, business, and success at a young age.
    12. Your kids don’t need a bigger home, all they need is love and a responsible dad.
    13. Spend at least an hour a day together with your spouse talking about personal dreams and plans.
    14. Never argue with your wife in front of the kids. When the father respects his wife the kids respect their parents.
    15. Affirm to them that all emotions are valid but not all emotions are correct. They need to feel and then test them.
    16. Love your family for who they are, not for whom you want them to be.
    17. Teach your son that men aren’t defined by their height, beard, or wallet, but by the content of their character.
    18. Teach them that life is not about finding yourself, it’s about creating the best self version.
    0
    0

    Barack Obama’s Biography: Net Worth, Birthday, Wife, Children, Parents, Family, Sister, Education, Siblings, Wiki Facts And More…

    4 weeks ago in Biography

     17 total views

    Barack Hussein Obama II (born 4 August 1961), professionally addressed as Barack Obama, is a celebrated American politician. He served as the United States’ 44th president from 2009 to 2017. He happened to be the first black American president of the USA.

    Barack Obama left the University of Columbia. He worked as a community organizer in Chicago. Later on, in 1988, he went to Law School and served as the first black president of the Harvard Law Review.

    Coming back to politics, he served from 1997 to 2004 in the Illinois Senate when he ran for the post of senator.

    With Barack Obama‘s March Senate primary victory, his well-received July Democratic National Convention keynote address, and his overwhelming November election to the Senate, Barack Obama gained national notoriety in 2004.

    BARACK OBAMA

    WIKI FACTS & ABOUT DATA

    Real Name: Barack Hussein Obama II
    Stage Name: Barack Obama
    Born: 4th-August-1961
    Place of Birth: Kapiʻolani Medical Center for Women & Children, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
    Nationality: American, Kenyan
    Height: 1.87 m
    Parents: Barack Obama Sr., Stanley Ann Dunham
    Siblings: Auma Obama, Maya Soetoro-Ng, George Obama, Malik Obama, Bernard Obama, Abo Obama, David Ndesandjo, Mark Okoth Obama Ndesandjo
    Wife • Spouse: Michelle Obama (m. 1992)
    Girlfriend • Partner: N/A
    Children: Malia Ann Obama, Sasha Obama
    Occupation: Politician
    Net Worth: US$48 million

    Early Life & Education

    Barack Obama was born in Honolulu, HI, Hawaii on August 4th, 1961.

    He is the first and only President of the United States to be born outside of the contiguous 48 states.

    Stanley Ann Dunham, his mother, was of English, German, Swiss, Scottish, Irish, and Welsh ancestry. In 1960, she met Barack Obama Sr. in a Russian language class at the University of Hawaii Manio, where he was a scholarship student.

    Barack Obama Sr., a Kenyan, was already married at the time. In 1961, Barack Obama Sr. and Stanley Ann Dunham married. Six months later, Barack Obama was born.

    After his divorce from Stanley Ann Dunham in 1964,  Barack Obama Sr. came back to Kenya and married again. After returning to the United States, Barack Obama Sr. only paid a visit to Barack Obama. However, Barack Obama‘s father died in a tragedic car accident.

    At the time, Barack Obama was 21 years old. Stanley Ann Dunham married Lolo Soetoro, an Indonesian, in March 1965. Lolo Soetoro returned to Indonesia when his visa extension application was denied. In 1967, Stanley Ann Dunham and Barack Obama joined him there.

    Barack Obama was born in Indonesia and lived there until 1971, when he returned to Honolulu to live with his mother’s parents. He graduated from high school here in 1979. Lolo and Ann were married until 1980. Unfortunately, she passed away in 1995 after a long battle with cancer.

    Barack Obama has several half-brothers and sisters from both his mother and father. Barack Obama‘s siblings are Auma ObamaMaya Soetoro-NgGeorge ObamaMalik ObamaBernard ObamaAbo ObamaDavid Ndesandjo, and Mark Okoth Obama Ndesandjo. He moved to Los Angeles after graduating from high school in 1979 to attend Occidental College, where he received a full scholarship.

    He transferred to Columbia University in 1981 and received a bachelor’s degree in political science with a concentration in international relations. In 1983, he received his bachelor’s degree from Columbia University. He worked for Business International Corporation as a financial researcher for a year, then for numerous New York non-profits as a project organizer.

    Barack Obama moved to Chicago in 1985 after being appointed as a director for the Developing Communities Project, a non-profit organization. From 1985 through 1988, he worked there. He spent two months traveling throughout the world in 1988, including five weeks in Kenya visiting relatives.

    In the fall of 1987, Barack Obama attended Harvard Law School, where he became the president of Harvard Law Review.

    He returned to Chicago to continue working as a community organizer over the summers. Barack Obama worked as a civil rights attorney in Chicago after graduation.

    Career

    In February 2007, Barack Obama started his Presidency campaign in front of the Old State Capitol building in Illinois. The location chosen for the announcement was noteworthy because it was also the site of Abraham Lincoln‘s landmark “House Divided” address in 1858.

    In a campaign that projected themes of optimism and change, Barack Obama stressed subjects such as ending the Iraq War quickly, improving energy independence, and revamping the healthcare system.

    The Democratic Party’s presidential primaries attracted a large number of contenders. After early contests, the field narrowed to a two-horse race between Barack Obama and Senator Hillary Clinton. The race remained close throughout the primary, but Barack Obama gained a steady lead.

    Hillary Clinton abandoned her candidacy on June 7, 2008, and backed Barack Obama.

    Barack Obama announced his choice of Delaware Senator Joe Biden as his vice presidential running mate on August 23, 2008. Barack Obama chose Joe Biden from a field that included former Indiana Governor and Senator Evan Bayh and Virginia Governor Tim Kaine.

    Hillary Clinton called on her followers to back Barack Obama at the Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado, and both she and Bill Clinton gave convention speeches in his support. Barack Obama gave his acceptance speech in front of an estimated 84,500 people at Invesco Field at Mile High Stadium; the address was viewed by over three million people worldwide.

    Barack Obama‘s campaign broke multiple fundraising records throughout both the primary and general elections, notably in the number of small donations. On June 19, 2008, he became the first major-party presidential contender since the system’s inception in 1976 to decline public financing in the general election.

    John McCain was nominated for the Republican presidential nomination, and Sarah Palin was chosen as his running mate. In September and October 2008, Barack Obama and John McCain faced three presidential debates.

    On November 4, Barack Obama was elected president with 365 electoral votes to John McCain‘s 173. He received 52.9 percent of the vote, while John McCain received 45.7 percent. He was the first black president of the United States.

    In Chicago’s Grant Park, Barack Obama gave his victory address in front of hundreds of thousands of fans. He is one of three US senators who have gone straight from the Senate to the White House, Warren GWarren G. Harding and John F. Kennedy.

    Barack Obama entered the Presidents office as the 44th President of the United States on January 20, 2009. In his first few days in office, he issued executive directives and presidential memoranda ordering the US military to begin plans to evacuate troops from Iraq.

    He ordered the prison camp at Guantanamo Bay to be closed, but Congress obstructed him by refusing to authorize the necessary funds and refusing to relocate any detainees. Barack Obama eased the constraints on the privacy of presidential records.

    Barack Obama also repealed President George W. Bush‘s reinstatement of President Ronald Reagan‘s Mexico City policy, which barred federal funding for international family planning groups that perform or provide abortion counseling.

    Personal Life

    Barack Obama worked at Sidley Austin, a Chicago law firm, in the summer of 1989. Michelle Obama, an associate, was appointed to be his advisor for three months, beginning in June.

    They began dating soon after and were engaged in 1991. On October 3rd, 1992, they tied the knot.

    Their marriage is blessed with two kids. Malia Ann Obama, born in 1998, and Sasha Obama, born in 2001, are their two daughters.

    Net Worth

    Barack Obama‘s net worth and salary: Barack Obama is the 44th President of the United States and a former Senator from Illinois. He is the first African-American president of the United States, having served in the Illinois Senate for one term.

    Barack Obama‘s net worth is US$48 million as of this writing. For the majority of their adult life, the Obamas were not wealthy. As Barack Obama entered the political spotlight in 2005, they initially became millionaires thanks to book revenues.

    Social Media Handles

    • Twitter: @BarackObama
    • Instagram: @barackobama
    • Facebook: @barackobama

    READ ALSO: Michelle Obama’s Biography: Brother, Spouse, Children, Birthday, Net Worth, Education, Height, Quotes, Wiki Facts, Parents, Achievements And More…

    0
    0

    Michelle Obama’s Biography: Brother, Spouse, Children, Birthday, Net Worth, Education, Height, Quotes, Wiki Facts, Parents, Achievements And More…

    4 weeks ago in Biography

     14 total views

    Michelle LaVaughn Robinson Obama (born January 20, 1964), addressed as Michelle Obama, is a renowned politician, author, attorney, and businesswoman from the United States. She served as the First Lady of the United States from 2009 to 2017. 

    She was the first African-American woman to hold this post in the United States. She is former President Barack Obama‘s wife.

    Throughout 2007 and 2008, Michelle Obama campaigned for her husband’s presidential campaign, giving a keynote speech at the Democratic National Convention 2008. 

    During her tenure as the first lady, Michelle Obama acted as a role model for women and promoted poverty awareness, education, nutrition, physical exercise, and healthy eating. She was a fashion icon and a supporter of American designers.

    MICHELLE OBAMA


    WIKI FACTS & ABOUT DATA

    Full Name: Michelle LaVaughn Robinson Obama
    Stage Name: Michelle Obama
    Born: 17th-January-1964
    Place of Birth: Chicago, Illinois, United States
    Education: Harvard Law School (1988), Princeton University (1981–1985), Whitney Young Magnet High School (1977–1981)
    Nationality: American
    Height: 1.8 m
    Parents: Fraser C. Robinson III, Marian Shields Robinson
    Siblings: Craig Robinson
    Husband • Spouse: Barack Obama (m. 1992)
    Boyfriend • Partner: David Upchurch (1982)
    Children: Malia Obama, Sasha Obama
    Occupation: Attorney • Author
    Net Worth: US$70 million

    Early Life

    Michelle Obama was born in Chicago, Illinois, United States, on January 17, 1964. Her grandparents were Purnell Nathaniel ShieldsFraser Robinson, Jr.LaVaughn Dolores Johnson, and Rebecca Jumper. She has a brother named Craig Robinson.

    READ ALSO: Omotola Jalade Ekeinde Biography: Birthday, Net Worth, Movies, Spouse, Wedding Pictures, Children, Wiki Fact, State Of Origin, Social Media Handle

    Fraser C. Robinson III, her father, was a city water plant employee and Democratic precinct captain who was born in 1935. Marian Shields Robinson, her mother, was born on July 30, 1937, and worked as a secretary at Spiegel’s catalog business. Michelle Obama‘s mother was a stay-at-home mom until she started high school.

    The Robinsons traced their ancestry to pre-Civil War African Americans in the American South. She is a descendant of the Gullah people of South Carolina’s Low Country on her father’s side. 

    READ ALSO: Beyoncé Biography: Net Worth, Children, Pictures, Songs, Albums, Birthday, Height, Husband, Real Name, Wiki Facts, Parents, And More…

    Jim Robinson, her paternal great-great-grandfather, was born into slavery on Friendfield Plantation near Georgetown, South Carolina, in 1850. After the war, he became a free man at the age of 15. Some members of Michelle Obama‘s paternal family still live in Georgetown. 

    Fraser Robinson, Jr., her grandfather, built his own home in South Carolina. After retiring from Chicago, he and his wife, LaVaughn Dolores Johnson, relocated to the Low Country.

    Melvinia Dosey Shields, her great-great-great-grandmother, was also born into slavery in South Carolina but sold to Henry Walls Shields. The latter had a 200-acre farm near Atlanta in Clayton County, Georgia. 

    Adolphus Theodore ShieldsMelvinia Dosey Shields‘ first son, was multiracial and born into slavery around 1860. In 2012, experts concluded that his father was 20-year-old Charles Marion ShieldsMelvinia Dosey Shields‘ master, based on DNA and other evidence. 

    They may have had a long-term connection, as she produced two additional mixed-race children after independence and resided close to Shields, adopting his surname.

    Education

    Michelle Obama was motivated by her brother to attend Princeton University, which she did in 1981. She majored in sociology and graduated with a degree in African-American studies, earning a Bachelor of Arts in 1985 after writing a 99-page final thesis under the direction of Walter Wallace titled Princeton Educated Blacks and the Black Community.

    She claims that several high school instructors tried to persuade her not to apply and that she was told not to raise her eyes too high.

    Michelle Obama believed that her brother’s alumnus status, who graduated in 1983 and went on to teach basketball at Oregon State University and Brown University, would have helped her get admitted. Still, she was determined to prove her merit. 

    She has admitted to feeling overwhelmed during her freshman year, although she blames it on the fact that none of her parents had graduated from college and she had never visited a college campus.

    Personal Life

    Michelle Obama met Barack Obama at their law firm, Sidley Austin LLP, where they were among the few African Americans working with the firm. While he was a summer associate, she was supposed to mentor him. Their relationship began with a business lunch and then a community group meeting, where he impressed her for the first time.

    Michelle Obama told her mother that she planned to focus on completing her job before meeting Barack Obama solemnly. On their first date in 1989, the couple went to see Spike Lee’s film titled Do the Right ThingBarack Obama has remarked that the couple’s first attraction to each other was based on opposites attract because Michelle Obama had stability from her two-parent family while he was adventurous. 

    On October 3, 1992, they finally tied the knot. Michelle Obama had in vitro fertilization to conceive their daughters Malia Obama, born in 1998, and Sasha Obama, born in 1998.

    Michelle Obama has been in a dating relationship with David Upchurch (1982).

    Career

    Michelle Obama visited homeless shelters and soup kitchens during her first months as First Lady. She also sent representatives to schools and encouraged people to volunteer in the community.

    She advocated for bills that supported her husband’s policy interests. In honor of the enactment of the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009, she hosted a White House reception for women’s rights campaigners. 

    During trips to the US Departments of Housing and Urban Development and Education, she expressed support for the economic stimulus plan. 

    Some people praised her legislative efforts, while others suggested Michelle Obama should be less involved in politics. According to her representatives, she planned to visit all Cabinet-level agencies in the United States in order to become acquainted with them.

    Michelle Obama‘s then-chief of staff, named Jackie Norris, was replaced with Susan Sher, a longtime friend, and adviser, on June 5, 2009. As a senior adviser, Jackie Norris later joined the Corporation for National and Community Service. 

    Net Worth

    Not only has she familiarized herself with the things of politics, business, advocation, and legal practitioner, but Michelle Obama has also accumulated an estimated net worth of US$70 million.

    Social Media Handles

    • Instagram handle: @Michelleobama
    • Twitter handle: @Michelleobama
    • Facebook: Michelle Obama
    0
    0

    Beyoncé Biography: Net Worth, Children, Pictures, Songs, Albums, Birthday, Height, Husband, Real Name, Wiki Facts, Parents, And More…

    4 weeks ago in Biography

     14 total views

    Beyoncé (born September 1981) with full name, Beyoncé Giselle Knowles is a gifted American singer, actress, and wife to Jay-Z.

    She was born and raised in Houston, Texas. She performed various singing and dancing as a child.

    She eventually rose to fame in the late 1990s as the lead singer of Destiny’s Child, which happens to be one of the bestselling girls’ groups of all time.

    READ ALSO: Omotola Jalade Ekeinde Biography: Birthday, Net Worth, Movies, Spouse, Wedding Pictures, Children, Wiki Fact, State Of Origin, Social Media Handle

    Their Hutus saw the release of her first studio solo album, Dangerously in Love in the year 2003, which featured in the US Billboard Hot 100 number one singles titled, Crazy in Love and Baby Boy.

    BEYONCÉ


    WIKI FACTS & ABOUT DATA

    Full Name: Beyoncé Giselle Knowles
    Stage Name: Beyoncé
    Born: 4th-September-1981 
    Place of Birth: Houston, Texas
    Height: 1.7 m
    Children: Blue Ivy Carter, Rumi Carter, Sir Carter
    Parents: Tina Knowles, Mathew Knowles
    Nationality: American
    Boyfriend • Husband: Jay-Z (m. 2008)
    Occupation: Musician • Actress
    Net Worth: $355 Million

    Early Life

    As a young child, Beyoncé was shy and had few friends. Her parents signed her up for a dance class when she was seven years old.

    She then found a way to break out of her shyness, and along the way she discovered she had real talent. Then at age nine, she formed the singing-rapping girl group called Destiny’s Child originally called Girls Tyme in 1990 with childhood friends.

    In 1992 the group lost on star search television talent show which was later dropped.

    Education

    Beyoncé started attended parkers elementary school where she later left for Elsik High School then Kinder High School then she was later enrolled in St. Mary Montessori School in Houston, where she started her dance classes.

    She later dropped out of high school at the age of 15 to tour with Destiny’s Child. Her Dad, Matthew Knowles provided her with Tutors while on the road but she never earned a high school Diploma.

    Career

    Beyoncé Knowles first captures the public eye as the lead vocalist of the RB group, Destiny’s Child. She later established a solo career with her debut album, Dangerously in Love, becoming one of music’s top-selling artists with sold-out tours and a slew of awards.

    She featured Jay-Z in her single, Crazy In Love which was the biggest hit of the summer in 2003. The song also earned her a Grammy award and an MTV Video Music Award.

    In the year 2002, she displayed her acting capabilities in the movie series, Austin Powers in Goldmember where she starred as Foxy Cleopatra.

    Beyoncé Knowles also grabbed a high number of endorsement deals with companies like PEPSI, cosmetic company L’Oreal’s, and co.

    Discography

    Beyoncé has released six studio albums and five live albums so far which gained a lot of sales which is over 118 million records as a solo artist and 60 million with her early life group Destiny’s Child.

    Filmography

    In the year 2006, Beyoncé featured in the movie, The Pink PantherDream Girls and also Obsessed in the year 2006 and the favorite selling movie, The Lion King in the year 2019.

    Social Media Handle

    Beyoncé is one of the most followed public figures with active social media fans. She has over 185million followers on Instagram.

    Instagram handle – @beyonce

    Personal Life

    Beyoncé is presently married to Jay-Z whose real name is Shawn Carter. She bore three children.

    Their eldest daughter, Blue Ivy Carter who won a Grammy Award recently, and their twins a boy and a girl born in the year 2017 and are named, Rumi Carter and Sir Carter.

    Beyoncé also has three siblings named Solange KnowlesNixon Knowles, and Koi Knowles.

    Net Worth

    The super-talented mom, musician, businesswoman, and actress, Beyoncé with the long years of hustle has racked up an estimated net worth of $355 million.

    0
    0

    Omotola Jalade Ekeinde Biography: Birthday, Net Worth, Movies, Spouse, Wedding Pictures, Children, Wiki Fact, State Of Origin, Social Media Handle

    4 weeks ago in Biography

     15 total views

    Omotola Jalade (born 7th-February-1978), known professionally as Omotola Jalade Ekeinde MFR or OmoS*xy, is an iconic Nigerian actress, singer, philanthropist, and former model. 

    Since her Nollywood film debut in 1995, she has appeared in over 300 films, selling millions of video copies. 

    After receiving numerous high-profile awards, launching a music career, and amassing an enviable fan base, the press dubs her the real Africa Magic. 

    Omotola Jalade Ekeinde is the first African celebrity to receive over 1 million likes on her Facebook page. She currently has a total of over 3 million followers on Facebook.

    OMOTOLA JALADE EKEINDE


    WIKI FACTS & ABOUT DATA

    Full Name: Omotola Jalade Ekeinde
    Stage Name: “Omo S*xy”; Omotola Jolade Ekeinde; Omotola Jalade; Omotola Ekeinde
    Born: 7th-February-1978 
    Place of Birth: Lagos, Nigeria
    State Of Origin: Ondo State
    Nationality: Nigerian
    Height: 1.68 m
    Parents: Shola Jalade, Oluwatoyin Jalade
    Siblings: Bolaji Jalade, Tayo Jalade
    Husband • Spouse: Capt. Matthew Ekeinde (m. 1996) 

    Boyfriend • Partner: N/A
    Children: Princess Ekeinde, Captain E, Meraiah Ekeinde, Micheal Ekeinde

    Occupation: Actress • TV Personality
    Net Worth: US$7.2 million

    Early Life

    Omotola Jalade Ekeinde, who is of Ondo descent, was born in Lagos State. He was born on the 7th of February, 1978, in Lagos, Nigeria.

    She grew up in a family of five: her parents and two younger brothers, Tayo Jalade and Bolaji Jalade

    READ ALSO: Jim Iyke’s Biography: Movies, House, Girlfriend, Child, State Of Origin, Net Worth, Wife, Children, Birthday, Pictures, Wiki Facts, Real Name And More…

    Her mother, Oluwatoyin Jalade née Amori Oguntade, worked at J.T Chanrai Nigeria, and her father, Oluwashola Jalade, worked at the YMCA and the Lagos Country Club

    Omotola Jalade Ekeinde‘s original ambition was to work in business management. While awaiting her results from university, she began modeling to earn a living. 

    She attended Chrisland School, Opebi (1981–1987), Oxford Children School (1987), Santos Layout, and Command Secondary School, Kaduna (1988–1993). 

    She had a brief stint at Obafemi Awolowo University and completed her studies at Yaba College of Technology (1996–2004), where she studied Estate Management.

    Acting Career

    Omotola Jalade Ekeinde was introduced to acting by accompanying a friend to an audition. Her first acting role was in the 1995 movie Venom of Justice, directed by Reginald Ebere

    Reginald Ebere has been cited as launching her career. She was given the lead role in the movie, which set the stage for a flourishing career in the Nollywood film industry. 

    Omotola Jalade Ekeinde got her first significant role in the critically acclaimed film Mortal Inheritance (1995). In the movie, she played a sickle-cell patient who fought for her life despite the odds of survival. Her character overcame the disease, and she had a baby. 

    The film is regarded as one of Nigeria’s best movies ever made. Since then, she has starred in several blockbuster movies, including Games Women PlayBlood SistersAll My LifeLast WeddingMy StoryThe Woman in Me, and others.

    After a career-defining role in Mortal InheritanceOmotola Jalade Ekeinde‘s portrayal won her “Best Actress in an English Speaking Movie” and “Best Actress Overall” at the (1997) Movie Awards. She was the youngest Actress in Nigeria at that time to achieve this feat.

    In the late 1990s and early 2000s, the increasingly known actress starred in several sequel films, including Lost Kingdom IIKosorogun II, and Blood Sister II, leading to a grand achiever award on behalf of the Global Excellence Recognition Awards in the year (2004). 

    By the mid-year (2000), Omotola Jalade Ekeinde had catapulted into “A” list status. She was awarded Best Actress in a supporting role during the African Movie Academy Awards (2005).

    After shooting roughly three hundred (300) video movies, Omotola Jalade Ekeinde received her first cinematic movie role in the year (2010) film “Ije“. This film was shot at locations in Jos and the United States.

    Ije” was the highest-grossing Nollywood film at the time – A feat later broken by Phone Swap (2012). In 2012, she starred in the Nollywood blockbuster thriller, Last Flight to Abuja, which beat Hollywood blockbusters like SpidermanThink like a ManIce Age, The Avengers, and Madagascar to become the 2nd highest-grossing movie in West African cinemas in 2012. 

    Omotola Jalade Ekeinde has gone on to win over forty (40) domestic and international awards. She is considered Africa’s most prominent box office actress.

    In 2015, Omotola Jalade Ekeinde celebrated her 20th anniversary in the entertainment industry. She has appeared in about two hundred (200) movies. 

    In June 2018, Omotola Jalade Ekeinde, alongside Femi Odugbemi, received invitations to join the Oscars in the year (2018) voting members.

    Music Career

    Omotola Jalade Ekeinde OmoS*xy launched a “long-awaited” music career in 2005 with the release of her debut album titled “GBA“. The album produced the singles “Naija Lowa” and “The Things You Do To Me.” 

    Her unreleased second album – Me, Myself, and Eyes, brought in production from Paul Play Dairo and Del B. It was supported by the songs “Feel Alright“, featuring Harrysong, and “Through the Fire“, featuring Uche

    The album’s launch party was held in Nigeria, and tables were expected to sell for N1 million.

    In late 2012, Omotola Jalade Ekeinde began working on her third album and enlisted the help of The Bridge Entertainment. She went to Atlanta to work with a few prominent producers and songwriters who could help create a sound that would resonate with American audiences. 

    She had studio sessions with Kendrick DeanDrumma Boy, and Verse Simmonds and recorded a song with singer Bobby V.

    Reality TV Show

    In 2012, Omotola Jalade Ekeinde launched her reality show, Omotola: The Real Me, on Africa Magic Entertainment, an M-Net subsidiary broadcast on DStv. 

    This made Omotola Jalade Ekeinde the first Nigerian celebrity to star in her reality show.

    Philanthropic Organisation

    Omotola Jalade Ekeinde became a United Nations World Food Programme Ambassador in 2005, going to missions in Sierra Leone and Liberia. She also supports organizations such as Charles Odii‘s SME100 Africa to empower youth and young women in society. 

    She has been active in the Walk the World project and participated in Liberia’s Walk the World campaign with President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf.

    Omotola Jalade Ekeinde is a fierce human rights campaigner, and her philanthropy efforts are centered on her NGO project, called the Omotola Youth Empowerment Programme (OYEP). The undertaking brought hundreds of youths together for the Empowerment Walk and Convention. She lent her voice in (2010) to the Rewrite The Future Campaign of Save The Children UK.

    She lent her voice in (2010) to Rewrite The Future Campaign of Save The Children UK.

    She became an Amnesty International campaigner in (2011) and has participated in campaigns in Sierra-Leone (Maternal Mortality) and her recent campaign of The Niger Delta in Nigeria, where she shot a video asking Shell and the government to own up, clean up, pay up and take responsibility of the Oil spills in the Niger-Delta.

    In June 2020, she visited an orphanage home in Tanzania run by Tanzania Mitindo House, which focuses on HIV-infected children. She was welcome at the Julius Nyerere airport by a Tanzanian celebrity Wema Sepetu amidst dancing and singing. She then had lunch together with the orphanage children at the home of Wema Sepetu.

    To commemorate the 2021 World No Tobacco Day and the #SmokeFreeNollywood campaign, Omotola Jalade Ekeinde and some Nollywood stars like Dakore Egbuson-AkandeDaniel EffiongMeg OtanwaMichelle DedeOsas Ighodaro, amongst others, pledged to stop smoking in their movie scenes, as it had a negative influence on young kids who looked up to them. The campaign was backed by US non-profit organization Tobacco-Free Kids and a sub-Saharan public strategy firm – Gatefield.

    Personal Life

    Omotola Jalade Ekeinde married Captain Matthew Ekeinde in 1996. The couple later held a white ceremony on board a Dash 7 aircraft while flying from Lagos to Benin (2001), with close family and friends present. 

    Omotola Jalade Ekeinde gave birth to her first daughter on 30 March 1997. They have four children, Princess EkeindeCaptain EMeraiah Ekeinde, and Micheal Ekeinde. She lost her father, Shola Jalade in 1991.

    Awards & Nominations

    • The gorgeous actress Omotola Jalade Ekeinde was named Best Actress in an English Speaking Film at the 1996/97 Thema Awards for her portrayal of Kemi‘s character in Mortal Inheritance.
    •  She was also named Best Actress Overall for the same award show the same year for her excellent acting in Mortal Inheritance.  
    • She was awarded Best Actress in a Supporting Role during the African Movie Awards in 2005. 
    • In 2012, the talented actress was honored with a Black Entertainment Film Fashion TV and Arts (BEFFTA) Icon Award on October 27, 2012, for her outstanding contributions to the film industry worldwide. 
    • Omotola Jalade Ekeinde acknowledged the recognition as an extraordinary moment for her, stating that the award is the best award she has received globally. 
    • She was named one of TIME Magazine’s Most influential people in the World in The 2013 TIME 100 list. Her name was listed under the Icons list alongside Michelle ObamaBeyoncéKate Middleton, and others. 
    • In 2018, she won Best Actress in a Drama/TV Series at the Africa Magic Viewers Choice awards. 
    • In 2014, the actress was honored with a Member of the Federal Republic (MFR) award by former President Goodluck Jonathan.
    • Best Actress from the City People Awards for Excellence 2004. 
    • Best Actress & Grand Achiever at Global Excellence Recognition Awards in 2004. 
    • Most Friendly Actress by Youth Benefactor’s Awards, in 2006.
    • Best Actress-Africa Collaboration at Ghana Movie Awards 2011
    •  Actress of the Year at Eloy Awards 2012
    •  Pan African Best Actress at Screen Nation Awards 2012 
    • GIAMA Humanitarian Award at Golden Icons Academy Movie Awards 2012. 
    • Ebony Vanguard Award at Music Video and Screen Awards 2013
    •  Female Entertainment Personality at City People Social Media Awards 2016 
    • Best Actress at Toronto International Nollywood Film Festival 2017 
    • Best Actress at Nollywood Travel Film Festival 2017 
    • Most Influential 100 People of African Descent at the United Nations by MIPAD 2018
    •  Movie Icon of the Year at City People Movie Awards 2018 

    Filmography

    • Alter Ego (2017): Barrister Ada Igwe 
    • Blood in the Lagoon (2015): Scarlett Belo
    • Amina (2012): Amina 
    • Last Flight to Abuja (2012): Suzie
    • Ties That Bind (2011): Adaobi Onyomena 
    • A Private Storm 1,2 &3 (2010): Gina
    • Mind Game (2010): Betty 
    • Ijé: The Journey (2010): Anya Opara Michino 
    • Last Celebrity 1&2 (2011) 
    • My Last Ambition 1&2 (2009): Amanda 
    • Kings Battle (2009)
    • Beyonce & Rihanna 1&2 (2008)
    • Blindfold 1&2 (2008)
    • One on One 1&2 (2008)
    • Sister’s Love 1,2,3 &4 (2008)
    • Temple of Justice 1&2 (2008)
    • Tomorrow Must Wait 1,2 &3 (2008)
    • Worst Enemy 2 (2008) 
    • Yankee Girls 1&2 (2008) 
    • Careless Soul 1&2 (2007)
    • Desperate Sister1&2 (2007)
    • Final War 1&2 (2007) 
    • Power of Justice 1&2 (2007)
    • Sand in My Shoes 1&2 (2007) 
    • Sister’s Heart 1&2 (2007) 
    • The Prince of My Heart 1&2 (2007)
    • The Revelation 1&2 (2007) 
    • Titanic Battle 1&2 (2007) 
    • Total War 1&2 (2007)
    • Sandra Jealousy (2006) 
    • Taste of Sin 1&2 (2006) 
    • Brave Heart 1&2 (2005)
    • Games Women Play 1&2 (2005) 
    • Queen of Hasso Rock 1&2(2005) 
    • A Kiss from Rose 1&2(2004) 
    • All My Life 1&2 (2004) 
    • Die Another Day 1&2 (2004) 
    • Fateful Love 1&2 (2004) 
    • In Totality (2004): 
    • Olivia Last Wedding (2004):
    • Sandra Snr. Last Wedding 2 (2004) 
    • Masterstroke 1&2 (2004) 
    • Moment of Joy 1&2 (2004) 
    • My Blood 1&2 (2004) 
    • No One But You (2004) 
    • Pretty Woman (2004) 
    • Royal Family 1&2 (2004)
    • The Woman in Me 1&2 (2004) 
    • Worst Marriage1&2 (2004):
    • Augusta Beyond Belief 1&2 (2003):
    • Nkiru Blood Sister 1&2 (2003)
    • Have a Dream 1&2 (2003) 
    • Will Die for You (2003) 
    • My Best Friend (2003) 
    • Oyato 1&2(2003) 
    • Rescue (2003) 
    • Society Lady (2003) 
    • Soul Provider (2003) 
    • The Outsider (2003) 
    • The Silent Book 1&2 (2003) 
    • Touching Love (2003) 
    • True Love (2003) Under Fire (2003)
    • What I Want (2003) 
    • When Love Dies (2003) 
    • Working for Love (2003)
    • Shackles and the Rugged Cross (2003)
    • Kosorogun 1&2(2002)
    • Lost Kingdom 1&2 (1999)
    • Scores to Settle (1998) 
    • Mortal Inheritance (1996) 

    Albums

    • GBA (2005)
    • Me, Myself, and Eyes

    Singles

    • 2014 “Barren Land”.
    • 2015″Strong Girl (Remix)” ss a featured artist

    TV Shows

    • Hit the Floor- End Game (2018

    Net Worth

    Named one of the highest earning and influential African actresses, the beautiful actress Omotola Jalade Ekeinde has an estimated net worth of US$7.2 million.

    Social Media Handles

    The award-winning performer Omotola Jalade Ekeinde is active on social media. She has over 6 million followers on Facebook, over 1.4 million followers on Twitter, and over 5 million on Instagram.

    0
    0

    13 Ways To Keep A Man Deeply In Love With You

    4 weeks ago in Relationships

     16 total views

    Falling in love with someone is one thing, but keeping them in love with you is a whole other story. As fun and wonderful as relationships are, they require work and cultivation to keep the spark alive. If you really love a man, you probably want to keep him in love with you, too. Here are some tips on how to keep his love for you strong while also remaining true to yourself.

    READ ALSO: 9 Interesting Things To Say To Your Girlfriend Or Wife To Make Her Feel Good

    1. Make efforts to show you love him every day:

    Don’t get too comfortable. Being in love is wonderful and fun, but it also takes work to keep those feelings alive. Schedule date nights no matter how busy you are, tell him how much you love him even when you’re not in the best mood, and make your day-to-day life as a couple feel special. This helps your partner feel loved and appreciated, which will keep him wanting your affection. Maybe you’ve been super busy at work lately. Call him on your 10-minute break to show that he’s on your mind despite all the work stress.
    Say something like, “I just wanted to say I miss you. Can’t wait to see you this evening!”

    2. Let him know that you’re grateful for him:

    It’s hard to stay in love if you feel taken for granted. Always remember to tell him how thankful you are for your relationship. Write him a love note to stick in his lunch before work and tell him how much he means to you just for the sake of doing it. Actively express gratitude as often as you can so he feels appreciated and loved by you. It will keep his feelings strong in return. Say something like, “You know how to make me laugh on even the worst days. I’m so grateful to have you” or “I don’t know what I’d do without you. You make my life so amazing.”
    You could say things like “I really appreciate that you made me breakfast this morning” or “I really appreciate how hard you work.”

    3. Build him up and don’t put him down:
    Don’t make fun of him or make him feel bad about himself. As your relationship progresses, you may notice his flaws or quirks. Don’t tease him about the things he can’t help, and definitely don’t belittle him or make him feel bad in front of friends and relatives. Instead, tell him why you think he’s the greatest, especially when he’s feeling low. Your support will mean the world to him and keep him very much in love. After a rough day at work, say something like, “I don’t know what your boss is talking about. I’ve seen you work with customers and you’re so kind and attentive to them!”
    4. Be consistent:

    Make sure that your man can count on you. If you offer to pick him up at work, follow through and be on time. Making promises you don’t always keep can erode your partner’s trust over time. To keep a man in love with you, show that he can depend on you. If you ever mess up and forget to follow through, give him a genuine apology. Everyone makes mistakes in relationships. Apologizing will show him that you genuinely care about his feelings.

    5. Listen to him when he needs to talk:

    This is a great way to show him that you care. When he talks to you, make eye contact and listen attentively. Don’t text or check your phone while he’s telling you about his day. Instead, focus on what he’s saying and ask follow-up questions to get even closer to him Your attention will make him feel supported and loved, which increases his positive feelings towards you in return. If he comes home and remarks that he had a bad day, ask him something like, “Do you want to talk about it?” Even if he doesn’t, he’ll appreciate that you care.
    It’s really important for him to feel heard, listened to, and understood. This doesn’t mean that you have to agree with everything he says, but you should always listen and let him be himself.

    6. Give him space:
    People need to do their own thing sometimes. To keep things feeling fresh, don’t spend every waking moment together. Let him have his time to play video games after a long day at work or read comic books on a Saturday afternoon. This will allow him to keep up with his own interests and feel good about himself on his own. Plus, if you want him to stay in love, you’ve got to give him a chance to miss you a little! Make some time for your interests, too. While he’s having his solo movie marathon, practice playing the piano or open up that book you’ve been meaning to read.
    Keeping up with your individual hobbies can actually strengthen your relationship. 

    7. Talk about conflicts openly:

    Avoid waiting for him to notice that you’re upset. When you run into conflict (which completely normal in healthy relationships) wait for a good time and tell him how you feel. Use I-statements and avoid placing blame as you discuss your point of view. Give him a chance to share his perspective and try to come up with a solution that you both feel good about. Getting through conflict together can show you both how strong your love is.To start the conversation, say something like, “I think I need to talk about something that’s been on my mind. Is this a good time?” or “Can we talk about something?”
    Always make an effort to listen. A lot of fights can happen when couples don’t listen to each other.

    8. Cultivate your own interests outside the relationship:

    Keep being the interesting person you were when he first fell in love. Go for that promotion at work, take on new hobbies like playing an instrument, and spend time with your friends. Avoid making your relationship your whole life. To keep your partner in love with you, you’ve got to keep being your (independent) self. Make time to hang out with your friends without your partner. Couple hangouts can be a lot of fun, but it’s also important to relax and spend time with just your friends sometimes.
    Keeping your own interests alive helps you have more things to talk about with your partner, too. He can ask you about the songs you’re learning on the guitar or the new moves you mastered in dance class.

    9. Encourage him to spend time with his friends:

    This shows that you trust him and want him to be happy. If you struggle with jealousy, know that it’s normal, but try to keep those feelings at bay. Remember how much you value hanging out with your friends on your own sometimes, and try to see things from his point of view. He’ll appreciate your trust and support, and his time away will only make him appreciate his time with you more. It can be hard not to get a little jealous when he spends time away from you. Try to keep those feelings at bay, as keeping up with outside friendships can really benefit your relationship.

    10 Make time for s*x and physical intimacy:

    This can really help you both feel closer to each other. Talk about what you’re into and try new things together. Avoid getting stuck in the same routine when it comes to s*x. Instead, experiment to keep things interesting. It can help you strengthen your bond as a couple and remember the passion that brought you both together in the first place. Never feel pressure to have s*x with your partner. There’s a lot of ways to feel close to your partner, and s*x is only fun if both of you actively want to participate!

    11. Surprise him to show that you care:

    This lets him know that he’s still always on your mind. Write a love note for him and stick it in his messenger bag, backpack, or lunch before he heads to work. Get him flowers or a nice box of chocolates even if there’s no special occasion. Go big and surprise him with concert tickets to see his favorite band. These surprises let him know how much you love and appreciate him. Both are super important in keeping a man head over heels in love with you. You can also surprise him with favors or nice gestures. Clean up the apartment you share so that it’s spotless when he gets home from work. Wake up early and surprise him with a home-cooked breakfast.

    12. Try new things together:

    Keep the relationship fresh. Choose a new restaurant for your next date night. Go on a day trip to a place you both have never been before. Make new memories instead of reliving old ones. It will make your relationship feel new and exciting again, which can deepen your love and remind you both why you fell for each other. You can even try learning new skills together. Take a cooking class or train for an upcoming marathon together even if you’ve never run one before. It will enrich your life as a couple with new experiences.

    13. Touch him often:

    Playful touch is super important in relationships! Kiss him on the cheek, hold his hand, and give him a hug goodbye before even a quick errand. If you’re super tired but still want to feel close, cuddle on the couch. Keeping the physical intimacy alive between the two of you will make him feel closer to you, and remind him how much he loves you. Only do what you feel comfortable with. If you’re not feeling physically affectionate, show that you care in other ways. Write him a love note or pick up his favorite candy bar at the store.

    0
    0

    Jim Iyke’s Biography: Movies, House, Girlfriend, Child, State Of Origin, Net Worth, Wife, Children, Birthday, Pictures, Wiki Facts, Real Name And More…

    4 weeks ago in Biography

     39 total views

    James Ikechukwu Esomugha Okolue (born 25th-September-1976), addressed professionally as Jim Iyke, is a Nigerian actor, musician, and television personality.

    He is one of the movies Last Flight to Abuja stars which incorporate Omotola Jalade Ekeinde and Hakeem Kae-Kazim.

    READ ALSO: Don Jazzy’s Biography: Birthday, Net Worth, Houses, Spouse, Wiki Facts And More

    He is one of the renowned figures in the industry, but his versatility has also made him everyone’s choice.

    JIM IYKE

    WIKI FACTS & ABOUT DATA
    Full Name: James Ikechukwu Esomugha Okolue
    Stage Name: Jim Iyke
    Born: 25th-September-1976
    Place of Birth: Libreville, Gabon
    State Of Origin: Anambra State
    Nationality: Nigerian
    Height: 1.8 m
    Parents: Ngozi Gladys Okelue Esomugha, Stephen Okolue
    Siblings: Natasha Esomugha
    Wife • Spouse: Dana Kinduryte
    Girlfriend • Partner: N/A
    Children: Harvis Chidubem Iyke
    Occupation: Actor • Musician
    Net Worth: US$5 million

    Early Life & Education

    Jim Iyke was born on the 25th of September 1976 in Libreville, Gabon, Africa.

    His parents are Ngozi Gladys Okelue Esomugha and Stephen Okolue, whose last name changed to Esomugha. He hails from Ogwugwu Village in Enugu Agidi town of Anambra State, Nigeria.

    Jim Iyke is the only boy in a family of eight children. His sister’s name is Natasha Esomugha.

    He completed his secondary school education in F. G. C. Kwali Abuja from 1985 to 1991.

    Jim Iyke studied at the University of Jos, Plateau State, where he got a diploma in Banking and Finance and then had a BSc in Philosophy.

    READ ALSO: Crayon Biography: Net worth, Birthday, Songs, Girlfriend, Wiki Fact, Real Name, Wife, Record Label & More

    Career

    Jim Iyke began acting in 2001. He’s one of the highest-paid actors in Nollywood and has appeared in over One hundred and fifty (150) films. He started a movie production company, Untamed Productions, in 2007.

    Jim Iyke began his music record label, Untamed Records. He produced a first album titled “Who Am I?” featuring some of Nigeria’s top musicians, such as 2Baba and Sound Sultan.

    READ ALSO: Van Vicker’s Biography: Spouse, Birthday, Movies, Net Worth, Children, Family, Parents, Brother, Pictures, Mother, House, Wiki Facts

    One of the major controversies in his career is the controversial video of Jim Iyke’s purported ‘deliverance’ at The Synagogue, Church of All Nations, led by Pastor T.B. Joshua, went viral and led to intense debate on social media. The ‘evil spirit’ supposedly confessed that it was behind Jim Iyke’s inability to get married.

    Personal Life

    Jim Iyke holds a black belt in taekwondo. In April 2019, the Nollywood star took to his Instagram page to announce the birth of his son, Harvis Chidubem Iyke, in which he uploaded a picture showing him & his newly born baby boy in his arms.

    He is married to Dana Kinduryte. Together, they have the son named Harvis Chidubem Iyke.

    In January 2021, Jim Iyke said in an interview with net concerning his favourite artiste that he preferred Davido to Wizkid.

    Jim Iyke has a son, Harvis Chidubem Iyke, with Dana Kinduryte.

    Philanthropic Organization

    Jim Iyke is the founder of Jim lyke Foundation for Children with Special Disabilities. He visited Kenya in December 2012 in support of the Make a Change Campaign, a charity project founded by Christopher Grey, and Jamaican dance hall artist Ce’cile.

    READ ALSO: Chioma Avril Rowland Biography, Birthday, Net Worth, Husband, Father, Mother, Pictures, Wiki Facts

    Awards & Nominations

    • 2019 – NET Honours, Most Popular Actor
    • 2017 – The People’s Film Festival, New York, Festival Prize
    • 2015 – Golden Icons Academy Movie Awards (GIAMA), Best Actor
    • 2012 – Kampala Nile awards, Entertainment Entrepreneur Award
    • 2012 – Screen Nation Award, Best Actor of the Decade
    • 2012 – Anambra State Award, Best Actor
    • 2011 – Mode Men Magazine, Best Actor
    • 2009 – Africa Entertainment Award, New York, Best Actor
    • 2021 Net Honours – Most Searched Actor

    Filmography

    • 2010 Between Kings and Queens
    • 2012 Last Flight to Abuja
    • 2013 And Then There Was You
    • 2014 When Love Comes Around
    • 2016 Stalker
    • 2017 American driver
    • 2018 Merry Men: The Real Yoruba Demons
    • 2019 Dead rite
    • 2019The Set Up
    • 2019 Merry Men 2: Another Mission
    • 2020 Bad Comments

    READ ALSO: Sonia Uche Biography: Birthday, Net Worth, Siblings, Husband, Movies, Family, Pictures, Wiki Facts, Instagram, Boyfriend, Parents

    Net Worth

    Jim Iyke started his acting in 2001, and he’s one of the most generously compensated entertainers in Nollywood.

    Having shown up in more than 150 movies, he has bagged a couple of endorsements in his career.

    In 2007, he founded a movie production company called “Untamed Productions”. Later, he started his record label called “Untamed Records”. Currently, Jim Iyke’s net worth is estimated at US$5 million.

    Social Media Handle

    • Twitter: @Jimiykeofficial
    • Instagram: @jim.iyke

    READ ALSO: Tiwa Savage Biography: Wiki Facts, Net Worth, Son, Boyfriend, Husband, Website, Leaked S*xtape Video & More

    0
    0

    Nadia Buari Biography: Husband, Children, Birthday, Net Worth, Movies, Twin Daughters, Wedding Pictures, Wiki Facts, Social Media Handles, And More…

    4 weeks ago in Biography

     29 total views

    Nadia Buari (born November 21, 1982) is an astonishingly remarkable Ghanaian actress and TV personality. 

    Her acting experience hovers around Ghana and Nigeria, acting in several blockbuster movies, including; Heart of Men (2009), Forbidden Fruit (2009), Holding Hope (2010), Chelsea (2010), Single and Married (2012), and Game Plan (2015).

    Nadia Buari deservedly received two nominations for Best Actress in a Leading Role at the Africa Movie Academy Awards in 2009.

    NADIA BUARI
    WIKI FACTS & ABOUT DATA
    Real Name: Nadia Buari
    Born: 21st-November-1982
    Place of Birth: Takoradi, Ghana
    Nationality: Ghanaian
    Height: 1.65 m
    Parents: Sidiku Buari, Hajia Buari
    Siblings: Malik Buari, Aysha Buari, Shaida Buari, Jameel Buari, Jeed Rogers
    Husband • Spouse: Van Vicker (rum.)
    Boyfriend • Partner: Michael Essien (ex.), Jim Iyke (ex.),
    Children: 4
    Occupation: Actress • TV Personality
    Net Worth: US$950,000

    Early Life

    Nadia Buari was born in the remote town of Sekondi-Takoradi, Ghana, to a Lebanese father and a Ghanaian mother on November 21, 1982. Her parents are Sidiku Buari (father) and Hajia Buari (mother).

    She has five siblings: Malik BuariAysha BuariShaida BuariJameel Buari, and Jeed Rogers.

    Her biological father is from Lebanon. Her father divorced her mother, a beautician from Ghana named Hajia BuariHajia Buari later married Alhaji Sidiku Buari, who raised Nadia Buari as his child and adopted her. 

    Nadia Buari‘s stepfather had a lot of talents. He was not just a musician but also a producer and the president of MUSIGHA, where he worked for eight years. Later, he took up the position of vice-president of IFM (International Federation of Musicians). 

    She decided to follow in her stepfather’s footsteps and decided to be involved in the entertainment industry. Throughout her young school years, she participated in school dancing and drama clubs to groom her talent. 

    Education 

    Nadia Buari attended Mfantsiman Girls’ Secondary School in Ghana and then studied performing arts at the University of Ghana, where she graduated with a BFA degree. 

    Throughout her stay at the University of Ghana, she actively participated in drama and dance clubs.

    Career 

    Nadia Buari premiered on Ghanaian national television with a TV series titled Games People Play in late 2005. Moreso, her first major film was titled Mummy’s Daughter, after which she starred in Beyoncé: The President’s Daughter. Her role as Beyoncé served as her major breakthrough. 

    She got nominated for best actress for her role in the TV series Games People Play. The Ghanian has gone on to star in as many as 50 movies, including a 2013 movie titled The Diary of Imogene Brown, which she acted and produced.

    READ ALSO: Van Vicker’s Biography: Spouse, Birthday, Movies, Net Worth, Children, Family, Parents, Brother, Pictures, Mother, House, Wiki Facts

    Nadia Buari switched from Ghanaian films to Nollywood films around the year 2008. However, her breakthrough role in Nollywood was in a film titled Beyoncé & Rihanna, where she played the role of Beyonce alongside Nollywood actress Omotola Jalade Ekeinde who played Rihanna

    Ultimately, the movie became very popular amongst Ghanaian and Nigerian audiences. Her other notable Nollywood films include Rough Rider, Beauty and the BeastHolding Hope and Single and Married.

    She is also known for co-starring in films with Nollywood renowned actor Jim Iyke, which has also received attention. Other films she’s appeared in include; The Beyoncé and Rihanna film series, Hot Romance, and Behind a Smile. 

    READ ALSO: Chioma Avril Rowland Biography, Birthday, Net Worth, Husband, Father, Mother, Pictures, Wiki Facts

    In 2013, Nadia Buari‘s efforts were rewarded with the Pan African Actress award at the annual Nigerian Entertainment Awards (NEA Awards) in New York City.

    In addition, Nadia became an ambassador at Tablet India Limited (TIL) in the same year.

    Awards & Recognitions 

    In 2014, Nadia Buari was awarded the Special Recognition Award at Africa Magic Viewers Choice Awards. She has also been awarded for her hard work many times. 

    For instance, she received two prestigious nominations for “Best Actress” at the African Movie Academy award ceremony and won the “Pan African Actress” at the Nigerian Entertainment Awards, which were held in New York in 2013. 

    Social Media Handles

    The Ghanaian star Nadia Buari has a huge fan base due to her proficiency on Screen. Nadia is followed by over 5.3 million followers on Instagram and over 1 million followers on Facebook.

    • Instagram: @iamnadiabuari
    • Twitter: @B5sNadiaBuari
    • Facebook: Nadia Buari

    READ ALSO: Sonia Uche Biography: Birthday, Net Worth, Siblings, Husband, Movies, Family, Pictures, Wiki Facts, Instagram, Boyfriend, Parents

    Personal Life 

    Nadia Buari has captivated the minds of movie viewers with her beauty. She is 5 feet 5 inches tall (165 cm, 1.65 m) and weighs 55kg. Her body measurements are 34-23-34 ( bra size 34B, waist 23, and hip 34).

    Nadia Buari is not married at the moment. However, she was previously in a relationship with a famous Ghanaian football player called Michael Essien. After breaking up with him, she began dating fellow Nollywood actor Jim Iyke

    READ ALSO: Tiwa Savage Biography: Wiki Facts, Net Worth, Son, Boyfriend, Husband, Website, Leaked S*xtape Video & More

    Jim Iyke proposed to her after dating her for three months. Unfortunately, the lovers went separate ways citing unreconciliable differences as the cause. Even though the actress is currently not in a relationship, she is a mother to four lovely girls.

    Her first-born twins were born in 2015, the third born in 2017 and the last born in 2018. However, the super-talented actress has not revealed any information about the twin’s father.

    READ ALSO: Crayon Biography: Net worth, Birthday, Songs, Girlfriend, Wiki Fact, Real Name, Wife, Record Label & More

    She has been married to a Lebanese whose name is not identified. According to some publications, Nadia Buari had mentioned in an interview that Van Vicker is the father of her four children, including her twin daughters. Many believe he might also be his unidentified husband.

    Net Worth 

    Nadia Buari has been in the film industry for nearly two decades. She is one of the richest actresses in Ghana, with a net worth estimated at US$950,000.

    Filmography

    • Beyoncé — The President Daughter (2006)
    • The Return of Beyoncé
    • Mummy’s Daughter
    • Darkness of Sorrow (2006)
    • Slave to Lust
    • In The Eyes of My Husband
    • American Boy
    • Wicked Intentions
    • Tomorrow Must Wait
    • Hidden Treasure
    • Beyonce & Rihanna
    • Beauty and the Beast (2008)
    • My Last Ambition
    • Love, Lies and Murder
    • Secret Lie
    • The Angle Against The Monster
    • Heartless
    • Last Hour Romance
    • Under My Pillow
    • Speechless
    • Desperate Bride
    • Innocent Sin
    • Guilty Threat
    • The Golden Lady
    • Satanic Kingdom
    • Rough Rider
    • Crazy Scandal
    • Unfaithful
    • The Monster In Me
    • Bad Egg
    • Garden of Eden
    • No More Love
    • My Dove
    • Agony of Christ (2009)
    • Heart of Men (2009)
    • Forbidden Fruit (2009)
    • Holding Hope (2010)
    • Chelsea (2010)
    • Checkmate (2010)
    • Single and Married (2012)
    • Heroes & Zeros (2012)
    • Game Plan (2015)
    • American Driver (2017)

    READ ALSO: Don Jazzy’s Biography: Birthday, Net Worth, Houses, Spouse, Wiki Facts And More

    0
    0

    Van Vicker’s Biography: Spouse, Birthday, Movies, Net Worth, Children, Family, Parents, Brother, Pictures, Mother, House, Wiki Facts

    4 weeks ago in Biography

     39 total views

    Joseph Van Vicker (born 1st-August-1977), popularly called Van Vicker is an extraordinary talented Ghanaian actor, movie director, and humanitarian. 

    He also doubles as the chief executive officer of a film production house called Sky + Orange Production. He received two nominations for Best Upcoming Actor and Best Actor in a Leading Role at the Africa Movie Academy Awards in 2008.

    Van Vicker also acts in Nollywood films, starring Rita DominicRegina DanielsYul EdochieChika IkeNonso DiobiMike EzuruonyeStephanie Okeke, and others. 

    He’s acted in over 70 movies so far and is regarded as one of the most gifted actors of the present generation.

    JOHN VAN VICKER
    WIKI FACTS & ABOUT DATA
    Full Name: Joseph van Vicker
    Stage Name: Van Vicker
    Born: 1st-August-1977
    Place of Birth: Accra, Ghana
    Nationality: Ghanaian
    Height: 1.68 m
    Parents: N/A
    Siblings: Phylicia Anderson
    Wife • Spouse: Adjoa Vicker (m. 2003)
    Girlfriend • Partner: Nadia Buari

    Children: J’dyl Vicker, J-ian Vicker, Vj Van Vicker, Malik Buari, Aysha Buari, Shaida Buari, Jameel Buari
    Occupation: Actor • Filmmaker
    Net Worth: US$3 million

    Early Life & Education

    Van Vicker was born in Accra, Ghana, to a Dutch father and Ghanaian/Liberian mother on the 1st of August 1977. He has a sister whose name is Phylicia Anderson. Rumor has it that he has a stepbrother whose name is unknown.

    READ ALSO: Chioma Avril Rowland Biography, Birthday, Net Worth, Husband, Father, Mother, Pictures, Wiki Facts

    However, his father died when he was six years old. He has often disclosed in interviews that he considers himself a global citizen because he was raised all over the world by his mother. 

    Due to the early death of his father, Van Vicker has stated that he has a strong bond with his mother and considers her his hero.

    Van Vicker attended Mfantsipim School alongside fellow actor Majid Michel. Then he graduated from the African University College of Communications in 2021.

    READ ALSO: Sonia Uche Biography: Birthday, Net Worth, Siblings, Husband, Movies, Family, Pictures, Wiki Facts, Instagram, Boyfriend, Parents

    Career

    Van Vicker started in the entertainment world on radio as a presenter at Groove 106.3 FM from 1999 to 2000 and Vibe 91.9 FM from 2001 to 2004 and as a television personality for TV3 Ghana from 1997 to 1999, and finally for Metro TV from 2000–2004.

    e. Then he played the role of LeRoy King Jr., a Fine Arts student born in the U.S. who arrives at Sun city to complete his education. The series aired for a total of 10 episodes.

    Soon, Van Vicker was cast in his debut film titled Divine Love, but as a supporting character. This film, coincidentally, was also the debut role for fellow soon-to-be popular actors Jackie Appiah and Majid Michel, who appeared in the female and male leads, respectively.

    READ ALSO: Tiwa Savage Biography: Wiki Facts, Net Worth, Son, Boyfriend, Husband, Website, Leaked S*xtape Video & More

    He usually appears as the male romantic lead alongside top actresses such as Jackie Appiah and Nadia Buari. He is often compared to Nigerian actor Ramsey Nouah and fellow compatri*t Majid Michel due to their similarities in performance style.

    In addition to starring in Ghana movies, Van Vicker has appeared in numerous Nollywood films alongside prominent Nollywood actors such as Mercy JohnsonTonto DikehChika IkeNonso DiobiMike EzuruonyeStephanie Okereke, and Jim Iyke. His Nollywood movies include; Heart of FireMy Soul MatePopular KingHarvest of LoveGambling with MarriageStolen WillDiscoveredThe Joy of a PrinceThe Kingdom, and Against the Law.

    READ ALSO: Don Jazzy’s Biography: Birthday, Net Worth, Houses, Spouse, Wiki Facts And More

    Van Vicker is also the CEO of Sky + Orange Productions, a film production house. The Van Vicker Training facility is the actor’s latest entrepreneurship venture, where professionals train students in the field of acting. The Van Vicker Foundation is an outreach program for youth interested in making a good living.

    He has directed, acted in, and produced five films under his production company, Sky + Orange Productions, since 2008. However, 2012 was the biggest year for his production house, earning him the NAFCA Best Actor and Director Awards for his comedy movie titled Joni Waka.

    READ ALSO: Crayon Biography: Net worth, Birthday, Songs, Girlfriend, Wiki Fact, Real Name, Wife, Record Label & More

    Awards & Nominations

    Van Vicker is a magnificent and outstanding actor who has been nominated for and won numerous awards from Africa to the Caribbean. 

    Some of his awards include; Ghana Movie Awards, ACRAG awards, and the Nollywood Academy Films Critics’ Awards. 

    He won the Best African Caribbean Actor in 2009, and in 2011, the Best Actor African American. Also, the same year, Van Vicker won the Pan African creative actor. 

    Not forgetting the Best International Actor award at the Papyrus Magazine Screen Actors Awards (PAMSAA), which he won in 2013.

    Social Media 

    For his social media accounts, Van Vicker has recorded tremendous success in terms of followership. Most of his followers are die-hard fans, whom he doesn’t fail to impress with cool photos and posts. 

    The Ghanian iconic actor and producer is available on Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram.

    • Instagram: @iam_vanvicker.
    • Twitter: @iam_vanvicker
    • Facebook: Van Vicker

    Personal Life 

    Van Vicker is one of the finest actors in Africa, if not the finest. The Dutch-Ghanian sensation is average in height, with a well-built body. Other interesting body features include his dark brown eyes and black hair.

    Van Vicker has been married to a woman named Dr. Prophet La’Rika Van Vicker, also known as Adjoa Vicker, who is the CEO of Our Voice Matters International Peace Coalition, since June 28, 2018. 

    He serves as the acting president of the same organization. Van Vicker and Adjoa Vicker own apartments in The United States and Nigeria. 

    However, the actor was married to Adjoa Vicker. The pair wed in 2003 and have three children: J’dyl VickerJ-ian Vicker, and Vj Van Vicker. However, after many years of infidelity and irreconcilable differences, the couple thought it best to divorce and co-parent as friends. 

    In an interview, Nadia Buari claimed that Van Vicker is the father of her four children: Malik BuariAysha BuariShaida Buari, and Jameel Buari. This indicate that Nadia Buari is his partner and girlfriend.

    Net Worth 

    Van Vicker is one of the most influential actors in Africa. He is also the CEO of a production company called Sky + Orange Productions, which he founded in 2008. 

    The Ghanaian actor and producer Van Vicker have an estimated net worth of US$3 million.

    Filmography

    • Divine Love (2004)
    • Beyonce: The President’s Daughter (2006)
    • Darkness of Sorrow
    • Mummy’s Daughter
    • The Return of Beyonce
    • American Boy (2007)
    • I Hate Women
    • Innocent Soul
    • In the Eyes of My Husband
    • Princess Tyra
    • Royal Battle
    • Slave to Lust
    • Wedlock of the Gods
    • Broken Tears (2008)
    • Corporate Maid
    • Friday Night
    • Jealous Princess
    • River of Tears
    • Total Love
    • Twilight Sisters (2009)
    • Royal War
    • Beyond Conspiracy (2009)
    • Discovered (2010)
    • Loyal Enemies (2010)
    • Kingdom in Flames (2010)
    • Paparazzi Eye In The Dark (2011)
    • One Night In Vegas (2013)
    • Skinned (2016)
    • Cop’s Enemy (2017)

    READ ALSO: Nadia Buari Biography: Husband, Children, Birthday, Net Worth, Movies, Twin Daughters, Wedding Pictures, Wiki Facts, Social Media Handles, And More…

    0
    0

    Aubameyang Suffer Heavy Criticism After Defeat To Man City

    4 weeks ago in Sports News

     19 total views,  1 views today

    Chelsea legend, Chris Sutton, has hit out at striker Pierre-Emerick Aubameyang, saying the former Arsenal captain looks disinterested.

    Sutton also insisted that Chelsea manager Graham Potter may never play Aubameyang for the Blues again.

    He said this after Chelsea suffered a 1-0 Premier League defeat to Manchester City on Thursday night at Stamford Bridge.

    Aubameyang made a bright start to his Chelsea career but has now gone ten games without a goal and looks like a shadow of the striker who tore up the Premier League at his peak with Arsenal.

    “Aubameyang looked like he did not want to be here this evening. He’s not the only one. Cucurella, they have spent an absolute fortune on him and he looks well, well short for a Chelsea team that wants to win trophies,” Sutton told BBC.

    “I wonder whether Graham Potter is thinking, how can I play Aubameyang again in a Chelsea jersey after how woeful he was.

    “I’m always wary of criticising players for lack of effort or poor body language, but Aubameyang absolutely epitomised that – I thought he was woeful and hopeless and didn’t give anywhere near enough.

    “He looked disinterested and I suspect Graham Potter will be thinking, blimey, he’s never going to play in a Chelsea jersey again under me.”

    0
    0

    Russia’s President “Putin” Tells Ukraine He Is Ready For Peace Talks

    4 weeks ago in Breaking

     18 total views

    Russian president, Vladimir Putin has revealed that he’s open for peace talks with Ukraine to end the war, but only if Kyiv accepts ‘new territorial realities’.

    The Kremlin claims it has annexed the Donetsk, Lugansk, Zaporizhzhia, and Kherson regions despite not controlling them in their entirety.

    The Kremlin said on Thursday January 5th, 2023 that Putin told Erdogan peace talks are possible, but only if Ukraine accepts that territories occupied by Moscow as Russian.

    ‘Putin again confirmed Russia’s openness to serious dialogue on the condition of Kyiv authorities fulfilling the well-known and repeatedly voiced requirements of taking into account the new territorial realities,’ the Kremlin said in a statement.

    Erdogan had called for peace talks in the phone call with Putin, his office said earlier.

    ‘The Russian side emphasised the destructive role of Western states, pumping the Kyiv regime with weapons and military equipment, providing it with operational information and targets,’ the statement from the Kremlin added.

    This is not the first time Putin has expressed that he is ready for peace talks under the conditions set out by Moscow.

    On Christmas Day, in an interview with state television about the war in Ukraine, Putin said that Russia is ‘prepared to negotiate some acceptable outcomes’.

    The leaders also discussed the implementation of a landmark grain deal, brokered by the UN with the help of Turkey, to unblock Ukrainian grain.

    The Kremlin said the pair discussed ‘the unblocking of food and fertiliser supplies from Russia’ and the need for ‘the removal of all barriers to Russian exports.’

    0
    0

    Everything You Need To Know About Napoleon Bonaparte (Former French Military Commander And Political Leader)

    1 month ago in History

     17 total views

    Napoleon Bonaparte (born Napoleone Buonaparte; 15th-August, 1769 – 5th-May, 1821), later known by his regnal name Napoleon I, was a French military commander and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led successful campaigns during the Revolutionary Wars. He was the de facto leader of the French Republic as First Consul from 1799 to 1804, then Emperor of the French from 1804 until 1814 and again in 1815. Napoleon’s political and cultural legacy endures to this day, as a highly celebrated and controversial leader. He initiated many liberal reforms that have persisted in society, and is considered one of the greatest military commanders in history. His wars and campaigns are studied by militaries all over the world. Between three and six million civilians and soldiers perished in what became known as the Napoleonic Wars.

    Napoleon was born on the island of Corsica, not long after its annexation by France, to a native family descending from minor Italian nobility. He supported the French Revolution in 1789 while serving in the French army, and tried to spread its ideals to his native Corsica. He rose rapidly in the Army after he saved the governing French Directory by firing on royalist insurgents. In 1796, he began a military campaign against the Austrians and their Italian allies, scoring decisive victories and becoming a national hero. Two years later, he led a military expedition to Egypt that served as a springboard to political power. He engineered a coup in November 1799 and became First Consul of the Republic.

    Differences with the United Kingdom meant France faced the War of the Third Coalition by 1805. Napoleon shattered this coalition with victories in the Ulm campaign, and at the Battle of Austerlitz, which led to the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1806, the Fourth Coalition took up arms against him. Napoleon defeated Prussia at the battles of Jena and Auerstedt, marched the Grande Armée into Eastern Europe, and defeated the Russians in June 1807 at Friedland, forcing the defeated nations of the Fourth Coalition to accept the Treaties of Tilsit. Two years later, the Austrians challenged the French again during the War of the Fifth Coalition, but Napoleon solidified his grip over Europe after triumphing at the Battle of Wagram.

    Hoping to extend the Continental System, his embargo against Britain, Napoleon invaded the Iberian Peninsula and declared his brother Joseph the King of Spain in 1808. The Spanish and the Portuguese revolted in the Peninsular War aided by a British army, culminating in defeat for Napoleon’s marshals. Napoleon launched an invasion of Russia in the summer of 1812. The resulting campaign witnessed the catastrophic retreat of Napoleon’s Grande Armée. In 1813, Prussia and Austria joined Russian forces in a Sixth Coalition against France, resulting in a large coalition army defeating Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig. The coalition invaded France and captured Paris, forcing Napoleon to abdicate in April 1814. He was exiled to the island of Elba, between Corsica and Italy. In France, the Bourbons were restored to power.

    Napoleon escaped in February 1815 and took control of France. The Allies responded by forming a Seventh Coalition, which defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in June 1815. The British exiled him to the remote island of Saint Helena in the Atlantic, where he died in 1821 at the age of 51.

    Napoleon had an extensive impact on the modern world, bringing liberal reforms to the lands he conquered, especially the regions of the Low Countries, Switzerland and parts of modern Italy and Germany. He implemented many liberal policies in France and Western Europe.

    Napoleon’s family was of Italian origin. His paternal ancestors, the Buonapartes, descended from a minor Tuscan noble family who emigrated to Corsica in the 16th century and his maternal ancestors, the Ramolinos, descended from a minor Genoese noble family. The Buonapartes were also the relatives, by marriage and by birth, of the Pietrasentas, Costas, Paraviccinis, and Bonellis, all Corsican families of the interior. His parents Carlo Maria di Buonaparte and Maria Letizia Ramolino maintained an ancestral home called “Casa Buonaparte” in Ajaccio. Napoleon was born there, on 15 August 1769. He was the fourth child and third son of the family. He had an elder brother, Joseph, and younger siblings Lucien, Elisa, Louis, Pauline, Caroline, and Jérôme. Napoleon was baptised as a Catholic, under the name Napoleone. In his youth, his name was also spelled as Nabulione, Nabulio, Napolionne, and Napulione.

    Napoleon was born in the same year that the Republic of Genoa (former Italian state) ceded the region of Corsica to France. The state sold sovereign rights a year before his birth and the island was conquered by France during the year of his birth. It was formally incorporated as a province in 1770, after 500 years under Genoese rule and 14 years of independence. Napoleon’s parents joined the Corsican resistance and fought against the French to maintain independence, even when Maria was pregnant with him. His father Carlo was an attorney who had supported and actively collaborated with patri*t Pasquale Paoli during the Corsican war of independence against France; after the Corsican defeat at Ponte Novu in 1769 and Paoli’s exile in Britain, Carlo began working for the new French government and went on to be named representative of the island to the court of Louis XVI in 1777.

    The dominant influence of Napoleon’s childhood was his mother, whose firm discipline restrained a rambunctious child. Later in life, Napoleon stated, “The future destiny of the child is always the work of the mother. Napoleon’s maternal grandmother had married into the Swiss Fesch family in her second marriage, and Napoleon’s uncle, the cardinal Joseph Fesch, would fulfill a role as protector of the Bonaparte family for some years. Napoleon’s noble, moderately affluent background afforded him greater opportunities to study than were available to a typical Corsican of the time.

    When he turned 9 years old, he moved to the French mainland and enrolled at a religious school in Autun in January 1779. In May, he transferred with a scholarship to a military academy at Brienne-le-Château. In his youth he was an outspoken Corsican nationalist and supported the state’s independence from France. Like many Corsicans, Napoleon spoke and read Corsican (as his mother tongue) and Italian (as the official language of Corsica). He began learning French in school at around age 10. Although he became fluent in French, he spoke with a distinctive Corsican accent and never learned how to spell correctly in French. Consequently, Napoleon was treated unfairly by his schoolmates. He was, however, not an isolated case, as it was estimated in 1790 that fewer than 3 million people, out of France’s population of 28 million, were able to speak standard French, and those who could write it were even fewer.

    Napoleon was routinely bullied by his peers for his accent, birthplace, short stature, mannerisms and inability to speak French quickly. He became reserved and melancholy, applying himself to reading. An examiner observed that Napoleon “has always been distinguished for his application in mathematics. He is fairly well acquainted with history and geography … This boy would make an excellent sailor”.

    One story told of Napoleon at the school is that he led junior students to victory against senior students in a snowball fight, showing his leadership abilities. In early adulthood, Napoleon briefly intended to become a writer; he authored a history of Corsica and a romantic novella.

    On completion of his studies at Brienne in 1784, Napoleon was admitted to the École Militaire in Paris. He trained to become an artillery officer and, when his father’s death reduced his income, was forced to complete the two-year course in one year. He was the first Corsican to graduate from the École Militaire. He was examined by the famed scientist Pierre-Simon Laplace.

    Early career

    Upon graduating in September 1785, Bonaparte was commissioned a second lieutenant in La Fère artillery regiment at aged 23. He served in Valence and Auxonne until after the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789. Bonaparte was a fervent Corsican nationalist during this period. He asked for leave to join his mentor Pasquale Paoli, when Paoli was allowed to return to Corsica by the National Assembly. Paoli had no sympathy for Napoleon, however, as he deemed his father a traitor for having deserted his cause for Corsican independence.

    He spent the early years of the Revolution in Corsica, fighting in a complex three-way struggle among royalists, revolutionaries, and Corsican nationalists. Napoleon came to embrace the ideals of the Revolution, becoming a supporter of the Jacobins and joining the pro-French Corsican Republicans who opposed Paoli’s policy and his aspirations of secession. He was given command over a battalion of volunteers and was promoted to captain in the regular army in July 1792, despite exceeding his leave of absence and leading a ri*t against French troops.

    When Corsica declared formal secession from France and requested the protection of the British government, Napoleon and his commitment to the French Revolution came into conflict with Paoli, who had decided to sabotage the Corsican contribution to the Expédition de Sardaigne, by preventing a French assault on the Sardinian island of La Maddalena. Bonaparte and his family were compelled to flee to Toulon on the French mainland in June 1793 because of the split with Paoli.

    Although he was born “Napoleone Buonaparte”, it was after this that Napoleon began styling himself “Napoléon Bonaparte”. His family did not drop the name Buonaparte until 1796. The first known record of him signing his name as Bonaparte was at the age of 27 (in 1796).

    Siege of Toulon

    In July 1793, Bonaparte published a pro-republican pamphlet entitled Le souper de Beaucaire (Supper at Beaucaire) which gained him the support of Augustin Robespierre, the younger brother of the Revolutionary leader Maximilien Robespierre. With the help of his fellow Corsican Antoine Christophe Saliceti, Bonaparte was appointed senior gunner and artillery commander of the republican forces which arrived on 8th-September at Toulon.

    He adopted a plan to capture a hill where republican guns could dominate the city’s harbour and force the British to evacuate. The assault on the position led to the capture of the city, and during it Bonaparte was wounded in the thigh on 16 December. Catching the attention of the Committee of Public Safety, he was put in charge of the artillery of France’s Army of Italy. On 22 December he was on his way to his new post in Nice, promoted from the rank of colonel to brigadier general at the age of 24. He devised plans for attacking the Kingdom of Sardinia as part of France’s campaign against the First Coalition.

    The French army carried out Bonaparte’s plan in the Battle of Saorgio in April 1794, and then advanced to seize Ormea in the mountains. From Ormea, they headed west to outflank the Austro-Sardinian positions around Saorge. After this campaign, Augustin Robespierre sent Bonaparte on a mission to the Republic of Genoa to determine that country’s intentions towards France.

    13 Vendémiaire

    Some contemporaries alleged that Bonaparte was put under house arrest at Nice for his association with the Robespierres following their fall in the Thermidorian Reaction in July 1794. Napoleon’s secretary Bourrienne disputed the allegation in his memoirs. According to Bourrienne, jealousy was responsible, between the Army of the Alps and the Army of Italy, with whom Napoleon was seconded at the time. Bonaparte dispatched an impassioned defence in a letter to the commissar Saliceti, and he was acquitted of any wrongdoing.

     He was released within two weeks (on 20 August) and due to his technical skills, was asked to draw up plans to attack Italian positions in the context of France’s war with Austria. He also took part in an expedition to take back Corsica from the British, but the French were repulsed by the British Royal Navy.

    By 1795, Bonaparte had become engaged to Désirée Clary, daughter of François Clary. Désirée’s sister Julie Clary had married Bonaparte’s elder brother Joseph. In April 1795, he was assigned to the Army of the West, which was engaged in the War in the Vendée—a civil war and royalist counter-revolution in Vendée, a region in west-central France on the Atlantic Ocean. As an infantry command, it was a demotion from artillery general—for which the army already had a full quota—and he pleaded poor health to avoid the posting.

    He was moved to the Bureau of Topography of the Committee of Public Safety. He sought unsuccessfully to be transferred to Constantinople in order to offer his services to the Sultan. During this period, he wrote the romantic novella Clisson et Eugénie, about a soldier and his lover, in a clear parallel to Bonaparte’s own relationship with Désirée. On 15 September, Bonaparte was removed from the list of generals in regular service for his refusal to serve in the Vendée campaign. He faced a difficult financial situation and reduced career prospects.

    On 3 October, royalists in Paris declared a rebellion against the National Convention. Paul Barras, a leader of the Thermidorian Reaction, knew of Bonaparte’s military exploits at Toulon and gave him command of the improvised forces in defence of the convention in the Tuileries Palace. Napoleon had seen the massacre of the King’s Swiss Guard there three years earlier and realized that artillery would be the key to its defence.

    He ordered a young cavalry officer named Joachim Murat to seize large cannons and used them to repel the attackers on 5 October 1795—13 Vendémiaire An IV in the French Republican Calendar. 1,400 royalists died and the rest fled. He cleared the streets with “a whiff of grapeshot”, according to 19th-century historian Thomas Carlyle in The French Revolution: A History.

    The defeat of the royalist insurrection extinguished the threat to the Convention and earned Bonaparte sudden fame, wealth, and the patronage of the new government, the Directory. Murat married one of Napoleon’s sisters, becoming his brother-in-law; he also served under Napoleon as one of his generals. Bonaparte was promoted to Commander of the Interior and given command of the Army of Italy.

    Within weeks, he was romantically involved with Joséphine de Beauharnais, the former mistress of Barras. The couple married on 9 March 1796 in a civil ceremony.

    First Italian campaign

    Two days after the marriage, Bonaparte left Paris to take command of the Army of Italy. He immediately went on the offensive, hoping to defeat the forces of Piedmont before their Austrian allies could intervene. In a series of rapid victories during the Montenotte Campaign, he knocked Piedmont out of the war in two weeks. The French then focused on the Austrians for the remainder of the war, the highlight of which became the protracted struggle for Mantua. The Austrians launched a series of offensives against the French to break the siege, but Napoleon defeated every relief effort, scoring victories at the battles of Castiglione, Bassano, Arcole, and Rivoli. The decisive French triumph at Rivoli in January 1797 led to the collapse of the Austrian position in Italy. At Rivoli, the Austrians lost up to 14,000 men while the French lost about 5,000.

    The next phase of the campaign featured the French invasion of the Habsburg heartlands. French forces in Southern Germany had been defeated by the Archduke Charles in 1796, but the Archduke withdrew his forces to protect Vienna after learning about Napoleon’s assault. In the first encounter between the two commanders, Napoleon pushed back his opponent and advanced deep into Austrian territory after winning at the Battle of Tarvis in March 1797. The Austrians were alarmed by the French thrust that reached all the way to Leoben, about 100 km from Vienna, and decided to sue for peace.

    The Treaty of Leoben, followed by the more comprehensive Treaty of Campo Formio, gave France control of most of northern Italy and the Low Countries, and a secret clause promised the Republic of Venice to Austria. Bonaparte marched on Venice and forced its surrender, ending 1,100 years of Venetian independence. He authorized the French to loot treasures such as the Horses of Saint Mark. On the journey, Bonaparte conversed much about the warriors of antiquity, especially Alexander, Caesar, Scipio and Hannibal. He studied their strategy and combined it with his own. In a question from Bourrienne, asking whether he gave his preference to Alexander or Caesar, Napoleon said that he places Alexander the Great in the first rank, the main reason being his campaign in Asia.

    His application of conventional military ideas to real-world situations enabled his military triumphs, such as creative use of artillery as a mobile force to support his infantry. He stated later in life: “I have fought sixty battles and I have learned nothing which I did not know at the beginning. Look at Caesar; he fought the first like the last”.

    Bonaparte could win battles by concealment of troop deployments and concentration of his forces on the “hinge” of an enemy’s weakened front. If he could not use his favourite envelopment strategy, he would take up the central position and attack two co-operating forces at their hinge, swing round to fight one until it fled, then turn to face the other. In this Italian campaign, Bonaparte’s army captured 150,000 prisoners, 540 cannons, and 170 standards. The French army fought 67 actions and won 18 pitched battles through superior artillery technology and Bonaparte’s tactics.

    During the campaign, Bonaparte became increasingly influential in French politics. He founded two newspapers: one for the troops in his army and another for circulation in France. The royalists attacked Bonaparte for looting Italy and warned that he might become a dictator. Napoleon’s forces extracted an estimated $45 million in funds from Italy during their campaign there, another $12 million in precious metals and jewels. His forces confiscated more than 300 priceless paintings and sculptures.

    Bonaparte sent General Pierre Augereau to Paris to lead a coup d’état and purge the royalists on 4th September—the Coup of 18 Fructidor. This left Barras and his Republican allies in control again but dependent upon Bonaparte, who proceeded to peace negotiations with Austria. These negotiations resulted in the Treaty of Campo Formio. Bonaparte returned to Paris in December 1797 as a hero. He met Talleyrand, France’s new Foreign Minister—who served in the same capacity for Emperor Napoleon—and they began to prepare for an invasion of Britain.

    Egyptian expedition

    After two months of planning, Bonaparte decided that France’s naval strength was not yet sufficient to confront the British Royal Navy. He decided on a military expedition to seize Egypt and thereby undermine Britain’s access to its trade interests in India. Bonaparte wished to establish a French presence in the Middle East and join forces with Tipu Sultan, the Sultan of Mysore who was an enemy of the British. Napoleon assured the Directory that “as soon as he had conquered Egypt, he will establish relations with the Indian princes and, together with them, attack the English in their possessions”. The Directory agreed in order to secure a trade route to the Indian subcontinent.

    In May 1798, Bonaparte was elected a member of the French Academy of Sciences. His Egyptian expedition included a group of 167 scientists, with mathematicians, naturalists, chemists, and geodesists among them. Their discoveries included the Rosetta Stone, and their work was published in the Description de l’Égypte in 1809.

    En route to Egypt, Bonaparte reached Malta on 9 June 1798, then controlled by the Knights Hospitaller. Grand Master Ferdinand von Hompesch zu Bolheim surrendered after token resistance, and Bonaparte captured an important naval base with the loss of only three men.

    Bonaparte and his expedition eluded pursuit by the Royal Navy and landed at Alexandria on 1 July. He fought the Battle of Shubra Khit against the Mamluks, Egypt’s ruling military caste. This helped the French practise their defensive tactic for the Battle of the Pyramids, fought on 21 July, about 24 km (15 mi) from the pyramids. General Bonaparte’s forces of 25,000 roughly equalled those of the Mamluks’ Egyptian cavalry. Twenty-nine French and approximately 2,000 Egyptians were killed. The victory boosted the morale of the French army.

    On 1 August 1798, the British fleet under Sir Horatio Nelson captured or destroyed all but two vessels of the French fleet in the Battle of the Nile, defeating Bonaparte’s goal to strengthen the French position in the Mediterranean. His army had succeeded in a temporary increase of French power in Egypt, though it faced repeated uprisings. In early 1799, he moved an army into the Ottoman province of Damascus (Syria and Galilee). Bonaparte led these 13,000 French soldiers in the conquest of the coastal towns of Arish, Gaza, Jaffa, and Haifa. The attack on Jaffa was particularly brutal. Bonaparte discovered that many of the defenders were former prisoners of war, ostensibly on parole, so he ordered the garrison and some 1,500–2,000 prisoners to be executed by bayonet or drowning. Men, women, and children were robbed and murdered for three days.

    Bonaparte began with an army of 13,000 men. 1,500 were reported missing, 1,200 died in combat, and thousands perished from disease—mostly bubonic plague. He failed to reduce the fortress of Acre, so he marched his army back to Egypt in May. To speed up the retreat, Bonaparte ordered plague-stricken men to be poisoned with opium. The number who died remains disputed, ranging from a low of 30 to a high of 580. He also brought out 1,000 wounded men. Back in Egypt on 25 July, Bonaparte defeated an Ottoman amphibious invasion at Abukir.

    Ruler of France

    General Bonaparte surrounded by members of the Council of Five Hundred during the Coup of 18 Brumaire, by François Bouchot

    While in Egypt, Bonaparte stayed informed of European affairs. He learned that France had suffered a series of defeats in the War of the Second Coalition. On 24 August 1799, fearing that the Republic’s future was in doubt, he took advantage of the temporary departure of British ships from French coastal ports and set sail for France, despite the fact that he had received no explicit orders from Paris. The army was left in the charge of Jean-Baptiste Kléber.

    Unknown to Bonaparte, the Directory had sent him orders to return to ward off possible invasions of French soil, but poor lines of communication prevented the delivery of these messages. By the time that he reached Paris in October, France’s situation had been improved by a series of victories. The Republic, however, was bankrupt and the ineffective Directory was unpopular with the French population. The Directory discussed Bonaparte’s “desertion” but was too weak to punish him.

    Despite the failures in Egypt, Napoleon returned to a hero’s welcome. He drew together an alliance with director Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès, his brother Lucien, speaker of the Council of Five Hundred Roger Ducos, director Joseph Fouché, and Talleyrand, and they overthrew the Directory by a coup d’état on 9 November 1799 (“the 18th Brumaire” according to the revolutionary calendar), closing down the Council of Five Hundred. Napoleon became “first consul” for ten years, with two consuls appointed by him who had consultative voices only. His power was confirmed by the new “Constitution of the Year VIII”, originally devised by Sieyès to give Napoleon a minor role, but rewritten by Napoleon, and accepted by direct popular vote (3,000,000 in favour, 1,567 opposed). The constitution preserved the appearance of a republic but, in reality, established a dictatorship.

    French Consulate

    Bonaparte, First Consul, by Ingres. Posing the hand inside the waistcoat was often used in portraits of rulers to indicate calm and stable leadership.

    Napoleon established a political system that historian Martyn Lyons called “dictatorship by plebiscite”. Worried by the democratic forces unleashed by the Revolution, but unwilling to ignore them entirely, Napoleon resorted to regular electoral consultations with the French people on his road to imperial power. He drafted the Constitution of the Year VIII and secured his own election as First Consul, taking up residence at the Tuileries. The constitution was approved in a rigged plebiscite held the following January, with 99.94 percent officially listed as voting “yes”.

    Napoleon’s brother, Lucien, had falsified the returns to show that 3 million people had participated in the plebiscite. The real number was 1.5 million. Political observers at the time assumed the eligible French voting public numbered about 5 million people, so the regime artificially doubled the participation rate to indicate popular enthusiasm for the consulate. In the first few months of the consulate, with war in Europe still raging and internal instability still plaguing the country, Napoleon’s grip on power remained very tenuous.

    In the spring of 1800, Napoleon and his troops crossed the Swiss Alps into Italy, aiming to surprise the Austrian armies that had reoccupied the peninsula when Napoleon was still in Egypt. After a difficult crossing over the Alps, the French army entered the plains of Northern Italy virtually unopposed. While one French army approached from the north, the Austrians were busy with another stationed in Genoa, which was besieged by a substantial force. The fierce resistance of this French army, under André Masséna, gave the northern force some time to carry out their operations with little interference.

    After spending several days looking for each other, the two armies collided at the Battle of Marengo on 14 June. General Melas had a numerical advantage, fielding about 30,000 Austrian soldiers while Napoleon commanded 24,000 French troops. The battle began favourably for the Austrians as their initial attack surprised the French and gradually drove them back. Melas stated that he had won the battle and retired to his headquarters around 3 pm, leaving his subordinates in charge of pursuing the French. The French lines never broke during their tactical retreat. Napoleon constantly rode out among the troops urging them to stand and fight.

    Late in the afternoon, a full division under Desaix arrived on the field and reversed the tide of the battle. A series of artillery barrages and cavalry charges decimated the Austrian army, which fled over the Bormida River back to Alessandria, leaving behind 14,000 casualties. The following day, the Austrian army agreed to abandon Northern Italy once more with the Convention of Alessandria, which granted them safe passage to friendly soil in exchange for their fortresses throughout the region.

    Although critics have blamed Napoleon for several tactical mistakes preceding the battle, they have also praised his audacity for selecting a risky campaign strategy, choosing to invade the Italian peninsula from the north when the vast majority of French invasions came from the west, near or along the coastline. As David G. Chandler points out, Napoleon spent almost a year getting the Austrians out of Italy in his first campaign. In 1800, it took him only a month to achieve the same goal. German strategist and field marshal Alfred von Schlieffen concluded that “Bonaparte did not annihilate his enemy but eliminated him and rendered him harmless” while attaining “the object of the campaign: the conquest of North Italy”.

    Napoleon’s triumph at Marengo secured his political authority and boosted his popularity back home, but it did not lead to an immediate peace. Bonaparte’s brother, Joseph, led the complex negotiations in Lunéville and reported that Austria, emboldened by British support, would not acknowledge the new territory that France had acquired. As negotiations became increasingly fractious, Bonaparte gave orders to his general Moreau to strike Austria once more. Moreau and the French swept through Bavaria and scored an overwhelming victory at Hohenlinden in December 1800. As a result, the Austrians capitulated and signed the Treaty of Lunéville in February 1801. The treaty reaffirmed and expanded earlier French gains at Campo Formio.

    Temporary peace in Europe

    After a decade of constant warfare, France and Britain signed the Treaty of Amiens in March 1802, bringing the Revolutionary Wars to an end. Amiens called for the withdrawal of British troops from recently conquered colonial territories as well as for assurances to curtail the expansionary goals of the French Republic. With Europe at peace and the economy recovering, Napoleon’s popularity soared to its highest levels under the consulate, both domestically and abroad. In a new plebiscite during the spring of 1802, the French public came out in huge numbers to approve a constitution that made the Consulate permanent, essentially elevating Napoleon to dictator for life.

    Whereas the plebiscite two years earlier had brought out 1.5 million people to the polls, the new referendum enticed 3.6 million to go and vote (72 percent of all eligible voters). There was no secret ballot in 1802 and few people wanted to openly defy the regime. The constitution gained approval with over 99% of the vote. His broad powers were spelled out in the new constitution: Article 1. The French people name, and the Senate proclaims Napoleon-Bonaparte First Consul for Life. After 1802, he was generally referred to as Napoleon rather than Bonaparte.

    The brief peace in Europe allowed Napoleon to focus on French colonies abroad. Saint-Domingue had managed to acquire a high level of political autonomy during the Revolutionary Wars, with Toussaint L’Ouverture installing himself as de facto dictator by 1801. Napoleon saw a chance to reestablish control over the colony when he signed the Treaty of Amiens. In the 18th century, Saint-Domingue had been France’s most profitable colony, producing more sugar than all the British West Indies colonies combined. However, during the Revolution, the National Convention voted to abolish slavery in February 1794. Aware of the expenses required to fund his wars in Europe, Napoleon made the decision to reinstate slavery in all French Caribbean colonies. The 1794 decree had only affected the colonies of Saint-Domingue, Guadeloupe and Guiana, and did not take effect in Mauritius, Reunion and Martinique, the last of which had been captured by the British and as such remained unaffected by French law.

    In Guadeloupe slavery had been abolished (and its ban violently enforced) by Victor Hugues against opposition from slaveholders thanks to the 1794 law. However, when slavery was reinstated in 1802, a slave revolt broke out under the leadership of Louis Delgrès. The resulting Law of 20 May had the express purpose of reinstating slavery in Saint-Domingue, Guadeloupe and French Guiana, and restored slavery throughout most of the French colonial empire (excluding Saint-Domingue) for another half a century, while the French transatlantic slave trade continued for another twenty years.

    Napoleon sent an expedition under his brother-in-law General Leclerc to reassert control over Saint-Domingue. Although the French managed to capture Toussaint Louverture, the expedition failed when high rates of disease crippled the French army, and Jean-Jacques Dessalines won a string of victories, first against Leclerc, and when he died from yellow fever, then against Donatien-Marie-Joseph de Vimeur, vicomte de Rochambeau, whom Napoleon sent to relieve Leclerc with another 20,000 men. In May 1803, Napoleon acknowledged defeat, and the last 8,000 French troops left the island and the slaves proclaimed an independent republic that they called Haiti in 1804. In the process, Dessalines became arguably the most successful military commander in the struggle against Napoleonic France.[119][120] Seeing the failure of his efforts in Haiti, Napoleon decided in 1803 to sell the Louisiana Territory to the United States, instantly doubling the size of the U.S. The selling price in the Louisiana Purchase was less than three cents per acre, a total of $15 million.

    The peace with Britain proved to be uneasy and controversial. Britain did not evacuate Malta as promised and protested against Bonaparte’s annexation of Piedmont and his Act of Mediation, which established a new Swiss Confederation. Neither of these territories were covered by Amiens, but they inflamed tensions significantly. The dispute culminated in a declaration of war by Britain in May 1803; Napoleon responded by reassembling the invasion camp at Boulogne and declaring that every British male between eighteen and sixty years old in France and its dependencies to be arrested as a prisoner of war.

    French Empire {The Coronation of Napoleon by Jacques-Louis David In 1804}

    During the consulate, Napoleon faced several royalist and Jacobin assassination plots, including the Conspiration des poignards (Dagger plot) in October 1800 and the Plot of the Rue Saint-Nicaise (also known as the Infernal Machine) two months later. In January 1804, his police uncovered an assassination plot against him that involved Moreau and which was ostensibly sponsored by the Bourbon family, the former rulers of France. On the advice of Talleyrand, Napoleon ordered the kidnapping of the Duke of Enghien, violating the sovereignty of Baden. The Duke was quickly executed after a secret military trial, even though he had not been involved in the plot. Enghien’s execution infuriated royal courts throughout Europe, becoming one of the contributing political factors for the outbreak of the Napoleonic Wars.

    To expand his power, Napoleon used these assassination plots to justify the creation of an imperial system based on the Roman model. He believed that a Bourbon restoration would be more difficult if his family’s succession was entrenched in the constitution. Launching yet another referendum, Napoleon was elected as Emperor of the French by a tally exceeding 99%. As with the Life Consulate two years earlier, this referendum produced heavy participation, bringing out almost 3.6 million voters to the polls.

    A keen observer of Bonaparte’s rise to absolute power, Madame de Rémusat, explains that “men worn out by the turmoil of the Revolution […] looked for the domination of an able ruler” and that “people believed quite sincerely that Bonaparte, whether as consul or emperor, would exert his authority and save [them] from the perils of anarchy.”

    Napoleon’s throne room at Fontainebleau

    Napoleon’s coronation, at which Pope Pius VII officiated, took place at Notre Dame de Paris, on 2 December 1804. Two separate crowns were brought for the ceremony: a golden laurel wreath recalling the Roman Empire, and a replica of Charlemagne’s crown. Napoleon entered the ceremony wearing the laurel wreath and kept it on his head throughout the proceedings. For the official coronation, he raised the Charlemagne crown over his own head in a symbolic gesture, but never placed it on top because he was already wearing the golden wreath. Instead he placed the crown on Josephine’s head, the event commemorated in the officially sanctioned painting by Jacques-Louis David. Napoleon was crowned King of Italy, with the Iron Crown of Lombardy, at the Cathedral of Milan on 26 May 1805. He created eighteen Marshals of the Empire from among his top generals to secure the allegiance of the army on 18 May 1804, the official start of the Empire.

    War of the Third Coalition

    Napoleon and the Grande Armée receive the surrender of Austrian General Mack after the Battle of Ulm in October 1805. The decisive finale of the Ulm Campaign raised the tally of captured Austrian soldiers to 60,000. With the Austrian army destroyed, Vienna would fall to the French in November.

    Great Britain had broken the Peace of Amiens by declaring war on France in May 1803. In December 1804, an Anglo-Swedish agreement became the first step towards the creation of the Third Coalition. By April 1805, Britain had also signed an alliance with Russia. Austria had been defeated by France twice in recent memory and wanted revenge, so it joined the coalition a few months later.

    Before the formation of the Third Coalition, Napoleon had assembled an invasion force, the Armée d’Angleterre, around six camps at Boulogne in Northern France. He intended to use this invasion force to strike at England. They never invaded, but Napoleon’s troops received careful and invaluable training for future military operations. The men at Boulogne formed the core for what Napoleon later called La Grande Armée. At the start, this French army had about 200,000 men organized into seven corps, which were large field units that contained 36–40 cannons each and were capable of independent action until other corps could come to the rescue.

    A single corps properly situated in a strong defensive position could survive at least a day without support, giving the Grande Armée countless strategic and tactical options on every campaign. On top of these forces, Napoleon created a cavalry reserve of 22,000 organized into two cuirassier divisions, four mounted dragoon divisions, one division of dismounted dragoons, and one of light cavalry, all supported by 24 artillery pieces. By 1805, the Grande Armée had grown to a force of 350,000 men, who were well equipped, well trained, and led by competent officers.

    Napoleon knew that the French fleet could not defeat the Royal Navy in a head-to-head battle, so he planned to lure it away from the English Channel through diversionary tactics. The main strategic idea involved the French Navy escaping from the British blockades of Toulon and Brest and threatening to attack the British West Indies. In the face of this attack, it was hoped, the British would weaken their defence of the Western Approaches by sending ships to the Caribbean, allowing a combined Franco-Spanish fleet to take control of the English channel long enough for French armies to cross and invade. However, the plan unravelled after the British victory at the Battle of Cape Finisterre in July 1805. French Admiral Villeneuve then retreated to Cádiz instead of linking up with French naval forces at Brest for an attack on the English Channel.

    By August 1805, Napoleon had realized that the strategic situation had changed fundamentally. Facing a potential invasion from his continental enemies, he decided to strike first and turned his army’s sights from the English Channel to the Rhine. His basic objective was to destroy the isolated Austrian armies in Southern Germany before their Russian allies could arrive. On 25 September, after great secrecy and feverish marching, 200,000 French troops began to cross the Rhine on a front of 260 km (160 mi).

    Austrian commander Karl Mack had gathered the greater part of the Austrian army at the fortress of Ulm in Swabia. Napoleon swung his forces to the southeast and the Grande Armée performed an elaborate wheeling movement that outflanked the Austrian positions. The Ulm Maneuver completely surprised General Mack, who belatedly understood that his army had been cut off. After some minor engagements that culminated in the Battle of Ulm, Mack finally surrendered after realizing that there was no way to break out of the French encirclement. For just 2,000 French casualties, Napoleon had managed to capture a total of 60,000 Austrian soldiers through his army’s rapid marching. Napoleon wrote after the conflict:

    “I have accomplished my object, I have destroyed the Austrian army by simply marching.”

    The Ulm Campaign is generally regarded as a strategic masterpiece and was influential in the development of the Schlieffen Plan in the late 19th century. For the French, this spectacular victory on land was soured by the decisive victory that the Royal Navy attained at the Battle of Trafalgar on 21 October. After Trafalgar, the Royal Navy was never again seriously challenged by a French fleet in a large-scale engagement for the duration of the Napoleonic Wars.

    Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz, by François Gérard 1805. The Battle of Austerlitz, also known as the Battle of the Three Emperors, was one of Napoleon’s many victories, where the French Empire defeated the Third Coalition.

    Following the Ulm Campaign, French forces managed to capture Vienna in November. The fall of Vienna provided the French a huge bounty as they captured 100,000 muskets, 500 cannons, and the intact bridges across the Danube. At this critical juncture, both Tsar Alexander I and Holy Roman Emperor Francis II decided to engage Napoleon in battle, despite reservations from some of their subordinates. Napoleon sent his army north in pursuit of the Allies but then ordered his forces to retreat so that he could feign a grave weakness.

    Desperate to lure the Allies into battle, Napoleon gave every indication in the days preceding the engagement that the French army was in a pitiful state, even abandoning the dominant Pratzen Heights, a sloping hill near the village of Austerlitz. At the Battle of Austerlitz, in Moravia on 2 December, he deployed the French army below the Pratzen Heights and deliberately weakened his right flank, enticing the Allies to launch a major assault there in the hopes of rolling up the whole French line. A forced march from Vienna by Marshal Davout and his III Corps plugged the gap left by Napoleon just in time.

    Meanwhile, the heavy Allied deployment against the French right flank weakened their center on the Pratzen Heights, which was viciously attacked by the IV Corps of Marshal Soult. With the Allied center demolished, the French swept through both enemy flanks and sent the Allies fleeing chaotically, capturing thousands of prisoners in the process. The battle is often seen as a tactical masterpiece because of the near-perfect execution of a calibrated but dangerous plan—of the same stature as Cannae, the celebrated triumph by Hannibal some 2,000 years before.

    The Allied disaster at Austerlitz significantly shook the faith of Emperor Francis in the British-led war effort. France and Austria agreed to an armistice immediately and the Treaty of Pressburg followed shortly after on 26 December. Pressburg took Austria out of both the war and the Coalition while reinforcing the earlier treaties of Campo Formio and of Lunéville between the two powers. The treaty confirmed the Austrian loss of lands to France in Italy and Bavaria, and lands in Germany to Napoleon’s German allies.

    It imposed an indemnity of 40 million francs on the defeated Habsburgs and allowed the fleeing Russian troops free passage through hostile territories and back to their home soil. Napoleon went on to say, “The battle of Austerlitz is the finest of all I have fought”. Frank McLynn suggests that Napoleon was so successful at Austerlitz that he lost touch with reality, and what used to be French foreign policy became a “personal Napoleonic one”. Vincent Cronin disagrees, stating that Napoleon was not overly ambitious for himself, “he embodied the ambitions of thirty million Frenchmen”.

    Middle-Eastern alliances

    Napoleon continued to entertain a grand scheme to establish a French presence in the Middle East in order to put pressure on Britain and Russia, and perhaps form an alliance with the Ottoman Empire. In February 1806, Ottoman Emperor Selim III recognised Napoleon as Emperor. He also opted for an alliance with France, calling France “our sincere and natural ally”. That decision brought the Ottoman Empire into a losing war against Russia and Britain. A Franco-Persian alliance was formed between Napoleon and the Persian Empire of Fat′h-Ali Shah Qajar. It collapsed in 1807 when France and Russia formed an unexpected alliance. In the end, Napoleon had made no effective alliances in the Middle East.

    War of the Fourth Coalition and Tilsit

    After Austerlitz, Napoleon established the Confederation of the Rhine in 1806. A collection of German states intended to serve as a buffer zone between France and Central Europe, the creation of the Confederation spelled the end of the Holy Roman Empire and significantly alarmed the Prussians. The brazen reorganization of German territory by the French risked threatening Prussian influence in the region, if not eliminating it outright. War fever in Berlin rose steadily throughout the summer of 1806. At the insistence of his court, especially his wife Queen Louise, Frederick William III decided to challenge the French domination of Central Europe by going to war.

    The initial military manoeuvres began in September 1806. In a letter to Marshal Soult detailing the plan for the campaign, Napoleon described the essential features of Napoleonic warfare and introduced the phrase le bataillon-carré (“square battalion”). In the bataillon-carré system, the various corps of the Grande Armée would march uniformly together in close supporting distance. If any single corps was attacked, the others could quickly spring into action and arrive to help.

    Napoleon invaded Prussia with 180,000 troops, rapidly marching on the right bank of the River Saale. As in previous campaigns, his fundamental objective was to destroy one opponent before reinforcements from another could tip the balance of the war. Upon learning the whereabouts of the Prussian army, the French swung westwards and crossed the Saale with overwhelming force. At the twin battles of Jena and Auerstedt, fought on 14 October, the French convincingly defeated the Prussians and inflicted heavy casualties. With several major commanders dead or incapacitated, the Prussian king proved incapable of effectively commanding the army, which began to quickly disintegrate.

    In a vaunted pursuit that epitomized the “peak of Napoleonic warfare”, according to historian Richard Brooks, the French managed to capture 140,000 soldiers, over 2,000 cannons and hundreds of ammunition wagons, all in a single month. Historian David Chandler wrote of the Prussian forces: “Never has the morale of any army been more completely shattered”. Despite their overwhelming defeat, the Prussians refused to negotiate with the French until the Russians had an opportunity to enter the fight.

    The Treaties of Tilsit: Napoleon meeting with Alexander I of Russia on a raft in the middle of the Neman River

    Following his triumph, Napoleon imposed the first elements of the Continental System through the Berlin Decree issued in November 1806. The Continental System, which prohibited European nations from trading with Britain, was widely violated throughout his reign. In the next few months, Napoleon marched against the advancing Russian armies through Poland and was involved in the bloody stalemate at the Battle of Eylau in February 1807. After a period of rest and consolidation on both sides, the war restarted in June with an initial struggle at Heilsberg that proved indecisive.

    On 14 June Napoleon obtained an overwhelming victory over the Russians at the Battle of Friedland, wiping out the majority of the Russian army in a very bloody struggle. The scale of their defeat convinced the Russians to make peace with the French. On 19 June, Tsar Alexander sent an envoy to seek an armistice with Napoleon. The latter assured the envoy that the Vistula River represented the natural borders between French and Russian influence in Europe. On that basis, the two emperors began peace negotiations at the town of Tilsit after meeting on an iconic raft on the River Niemen. The very first thing Alexander said to Napoleon was probably well-calibrated: “I hate the English as much as you do”. Their meeting lasted two hours. Despite waging wars against each other the two Emperors were very much impressed and fascinated by one another. “Never,” said Alexander afterward, “did I love any man as I loved that man.”

    Alexander faced pressure from his brother, Duke Constantine, to make peace with Napoleon. Given the victory he had just achieved, the French emperor offered the Russians relatively lenient terms—demanding that Russia join the Continental System, withdraw its forces from Wallachia and Moldavia, and hand over the Ionian Islands to France.

     By contrast, Napoleon dictated very harsh peace terms for Prussia, despite the ceaseless exhortations of Queen Louise. Wiping out half of Prussian territories from the map, Napoleon created a new kingdom of 2,800 square kilometres (1,100 sq mi) called Westphalia and appointed his young brother Jérôme as its monarch.

    Prussia’s humiliating treatment at Tilsit caused a deep and bitter antagonism that festered as the Napoleonic era progressed. Moreover, Alexander’s pretensions at friendship with Napoleon led the latter to seriously misjudge the true intentions of his Russian counterpart, who would violate numerous provisions of the treaty in the next few years. Despite these problems, the Treaties of Tilsit at last gave Napoleon a respite from war and allowed him to return to France, which he had not seen in over 300 days.

    Peninsular War and Erfurt

    The settlements at Tilsit gave Napoleon time to organize his empire. One of his major objectives became enforcing the Continental System against the British forces. He decided to focus his attention on the Kingdom of Portugal, which consistently violated his trade prohibitions. After defeat in the War of the Oranges in 1801, Portugal adopted a double-sided policy.

    Unhappy with this change of policy by the Portuguese government, Napoleon negotiated a secret treaty with Charles IV of Spain and sent an army to invade Portugal. On 17 October 1807, 24,000 French troops under General Junot crossed the Pyrenees with Spanish cooperation and headed towards Portugal to enforce Napoleon’s orders. This attack was the first step in what would eventually become the Peninsular War, a six-year struggle that significantly sapped French strength. Throughout the winter of 1808, French agents became increasingly involved in Spanish internal affairs, attempting to incite discord between members of the Spanish royal family. On 16 February 1808, secret French machinations finally materialized when Napoleon announced that he would intervene to mediate between the rival political factions in the country.

    Marshal Murat led 120,000 troops into Spain. The French arrived in Madrid on 24 March, where wild ri*ts against the occupation erupted just a few weeks later. Napoleon appointed his brother, Joseph Bonaparte, as the new King of Spain in the summer of 1808. The appointment enraged a heavily religious and conservative Spanish population. Resistance to French aggression soon spread throughout Spain. The shocking French defeats at the Battle of Bailén and the Battle of Vimiero gave hope to Napoleon’s enemies and partly persuaded the French emperor to intervene in person.

    Before going to Iberia, Napoleon decided to address several lingering issues with the Russians. At the Congress of Erfurt in October 1808, Napoleon hoped to keep Russia on his side during the upcoming struggle in Spain and during any potential conflict against Austria. The two sides reached an agreement, the Erfurt Convention, that called upon Britain to cease its war against France, that recognized the Russian conquest of Finland from Sweden and made it an autonomous Grand Duchy, and that affirmed Russian support for France in a possible war against Austria “to the best of its ability”.

    Napoleon then returned to France and prepared for war. The Grande Armée, under the Emperor’s personal command, rapidly crossed the Ebro River in November 1808 and inflicted a series of crushing defeats against the Spanish forces. After clearing the last Spanish force guarding the capital at Somosierra, Napoleon entered Madrid on 4 December with 80,000 troops. He then unleashed his soldiers against Moore and the British forces. The British were swiftly driven to the coast, and they withdrew from Spain entirely after a last stand at the Battle of Corunna in January 1809 and the death of Moore.

    Napoleon would end up leaving Iberia in order to deal with the Austrians in Central Europe, but the Peninsular War continued on long after his absence. He never returned to Spain after the 1808 campaign. Several months after Corunna, the British sent another army to the peninsula under Arthur Wellesley, the future Duke of Wellington. The war then settled into a complex and asymmetric strategic deadlock where all sides struggled to gain the upper hand. The highlight of the conflict became the brutal guerrilla warfare that engulfed much of the Spanish countryside. Both sides committed the worst atrocities of the Napoleonic Wars during this phase of the conflict.

    The vicious guerrilla fighting in Spain, largely absent from the French campaigns in Central Europe, severely disrupted the French lines of supply and communication. Although France maintained roughly 300,000 troops in Iberia during the Peninsular War, the vast majority were tied down to garrison duty and to intelligence operations.

     The French were never able to concentrate all of their forces effectively, prolonging the war until events elsewhere in Europe finally turned the tide in favour of the Allies. After the invasion of Russia in 1812, the number of French troops in Spain vastly declined as Napoleon needed reinforcements to conserve his strategic position in Europe. By 1814 the Allies had pushed the French out of the peninsula.

    The impact of the Napoleonic invasion of Spain and ousting of the Spanish Bourbon monarchy in favour of his brother Joseph had an enormous impact on the Spanish empire. In Spanish America many local elites formed juntas and set up mechanisms to rule in the name of Ferdinand VII of Spain, whom they considered the legitimate Spanish monarch. The outbreak of the Spanish American wars of independence in most of the empire was a result of Napoleon’s destabilizing actions in Spain and led to the rise of strongmen in the wake of these wars.

    War of the Fifth Coalition and Marie Louise

    After four years on the sidelines, Austria sought another war with France to avenge its recent defeats. Austria could not count on Russian support because the latter was at war with Britain, Sweden, and the Ottoman Empire in 1809. Frederick William of Prussia initially promised to help the Austrians but reneged before conflict began. A report from the Austrian finance minister suggested that the treasury would run out of money by the middle of 1809 if the large army that the Austrians had formed since the Third Coalition remained mobilized. Although Archduke Charles warned that the Austrians were not ready for another showdown with Napoleon, a stance that landed him in the so-called “peace party”, he did not want to see the army demobilized either. On 8 February 1809, the advocates for war finally succeeded when the Imperial Government secretly decided on another confrontation against the French.

    In the early morning of 10 April, leading elements of the Austrian army crossed the Inn River and invaded Bavaria. The early Austrian attack surprised the French; Napoleon himself was still in Paris when he heard about the invasion. He arrived at Donauwörth on the 17th to find the Grande Armée in a dangerous position, with its two wings separated by 120 km (75 mi) and joined by a thin cordon of Bavarian troops. Charles pressed the left wing of the French army and hurled his men towards the III Corps of Marshal Davout.

    In response, Napoleon came up with a plan to cut off the Austrians in the celebrated Landshut Maneuver. He realigned the axis of his army and marched his soldiers towards the town of Eckmühl. The French scored a convincing win in the resulting Battle of Eckmühl, forcing Charles to withdraw his forces over the Danube and into Bohemia. On 13 May, Vienna fell for the second time in four years, although the war continued since most of the Austrian army had survived the initial engagements in Southern Germany.

    On 21 May, the French made their first major effort to cross the Danube, precipitating the Battle of Aspern-Essling. The battle was characterized by a vicious back-and-forth struggle for the two villages of Aspern and Essling, the focal points of the French bridgehead. A sustained Austrian artillery bombardment eventually convinced Napoleon to withdraw his forces back onto Lobau Island. Both sides inflicted about 23,000 casualties on each other. It was the first defeat Napoleon suffered in a major set-piece battle, and it caused excitement throughout many parts of Europe because it proved that he could be beaten on the battlefield.

    After the setback at Aspern-Essling, Napoleon took more than six weeks in planning and preparing for contingencies before he made another attempt at crossing the Danube. From 30 June to the early days of July, the French recrossed the Danube in strength, with more than 180,000 troops marching across the Marchfeld towards the Austrians. Charles received the French with 150,000 of his own men. In the ensuing Battle of Wagram, which also lasted two days, Napoleon commanded his forces in what was the largest battle of his career up until then. Napoleon finished off the battle with a concentrated central thrust that punctured a hole in the Austrian army and forced Charles to retreat. Austrian losses were very heavy, reaching well over 40,000 casualties. The French were too exhausted to pursue the Austrians immediately, but Napoleon eventually caught up with Charles at Znaim and the latter signed an armistice on 12 July.

    In the Kingdom of Holland, the British launched the Walcheren Campaign to open up a second front in the war and to relieve the pressure on the Austrians. The British army only landed at Walcheren on 30 July, by which point the Austrians had already been defeated. The Walcheren Campaign was characterized by little fighting but heavy casualties thanks to the popularly dubbed “Walcheren Fever”. Over 4,000 British troops were lost in a bungled campaign, and the rest withdrew in December 1809. The main strategic result from the campaign became the delayed political settlement between the French and the Austrians. Emperor Francis waited to see how the British performed in their theatre before entering into negotiations with Napoleon. Once it became apparent the British were going nowhere, the Austrians agreed to peace talks.

    The resulting Treaty of Schönbrunn in October 1809 was the harshest that France had imposed on Austria in recent memory. Metternich and Archduke Charles had the preservation of the Habsburg Empire as their fundamental goal, and to this end, they succeeded by making Napoleon seek more modest goals in return for promises of friendship between the two powers. While most of the hereditary lands remained a part of the Habsburg realm, France received Carinthia, Carniola, and the Adriatic ports, while Galicia was given to the Poles and the Salzburg area of the Tyrol went to the Bavarians. Austria lost over three million subjects, about one-fifth of her total population, as a result of these territorial changes.

    Napoleon turned his focus to domestic affairs after the war. Empress Joséphine had still not given birth to a child from Napoleon, who became worried about the future of his empire following his death. Desperate for a legitimate heir, Napoleon divorced Joséphine on 10 January 1810 and started looking for a new wife. Hoping to cement the recent alliance with Austria through a family connection, Napoleon married the Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma, daughter of Francis II, who was 18 years old at the time. On 20 March 1811,  Marie Louise gave birth to a baby boy, whom Napoleon made heir apparent and bestowed the title of King of Rome. His son never actually ruled the empire, but given his brief titular rule and cousin Louis-Napoléon’s subsequent naming himself Napoléon III, historians often refer to him as Napoleon II.

    Invasion of Russia

    In 1808, Napoleon and Tsar Alexander met at the Congress of Erfurt to preserve the Russo-French alliance. The leaders had a friendly personal relationship after their first meeting at Tilsit in 1807. By 1811, however, tensions had increased, a strain on the relationship became the regular violations of the Continental System by the Russians as their economy was failing, which led Napoleon to threaten Alexander with serious consequences if he formed an alliance with Britain.

    By 1812, advisers to Alexander suggested the possibility of an invasion of the French Empire and the recapture of Poland. On receipt of intelligence reports on Russia’s war preparations, Napoleon expanded his Grande Armée to more than 450,000 men. He ignored repeated advice against an invasion of the Russian heartland and prepared for an offensive campaign; on 24 June 1812 the invasion commenced.

    In an attempt to gain increased support from Polish nationalists and patri*ts, Napoleon termed the war the Second Polish War—the First Polish War had been the Bar Confederation uprising by Polish nobles against Russia in 1768. Polish patri*ts wanted the Russian part of Poland to be joined with the Duchy of Warsaw and an independent Poland created. This was rejected by Napoleon, who stated he had promised his ally Austria this would not happen. Napoleon refused to manumit the Russian serfs because of concerns this might provoke a reaction in his army’s rear. The serfs later committed atrocities against French soldiers during France’s retreat.

    The Russians avoided Napoleon’s objective of a decisive engagement and instead retreated deeper into Russia. A brief attempt at resistance was made at Smolensk in August; the Russians were defeated in a series of battles, and Napoleon resumed his advance. The Russians again avoided battle, although in a few cases this was only achieved because Napoleon uncharacteristically hesitated to attack when the opportunity arose. Owing to the Russian army’s scorched earth tactics, the French found it increasingly difficult to forage food for themselves and their horses.

    The Russians eventually offered battle outside Moscow on 7 September: the Battle of Borodino resulted in approximately 44,000 Russian and 35,000 French dead, wounded or captured, and may have been the bloodiest day of battle in history up to that point in time. Although the French had won, the Russian army had accepted, and withstood, the major battle Napoleon had hoped would be decisive. Napoleon’s own account was: “The most terrible of all my battles was the one before Moscow. The French showed themselves to be worthy of victory, but the Russians showed themselves worthy of being invincible”.

    The Russian army withdrew and retreated past Moscow. Napoleon entered the city, assuming its fall would end the war and Alexander would negotiate peace. Moscow was burned, rather than surrendered, on the order of Moscow’s governor Feodor Rostopchin. After five weeks, Napoleon and his army left. In early November Napoleon became concerned about the loss of control back in France after the Malet coup of 1812. His army walked through snow up to their knees, and nearly 10,000 men and horses froze to death on the night of 8/9 November alone. After the Battle of Berezina Napoleon managed to escape but had to abandon much of the remaining artillery and baggage train. On 5th-December, shortly before arriving in Vilnius, Napoleon left the army in a sledge.

    The French suffered in the course of a ruinous retreat, including from the harshness of the Russian Winter. The Armée had begun as over 400,000 frontline troops, with fewer than 40,000 crossing the Berezina River in November 1812. The Russians had lost 150,000 soldiers in battle and hundreds of thousands of civilians.

    War of the Sixth Coalition

    There was a lull in fighting over the winter of 1812–13 while both the Russians and the French rebuilt their forces; Napoleon was able to field 350,000 troops. Heartened by France’s loss in Russia, Prussia joined with Austria, Sweden, Russia, Great Britain, Spain, and Portugal in a new coalition. Napoleon assumed command in Germany and inflicted a series of defeats on the Coalition culminating in the Battle of Dresden in August 1813.

    Despite these successes, the numbers continued to mount against Napoleon, and the French army was pinned down by a force twice its size and lost at the Battle of Leipzig. This was by far the largest battle of the Napoleonic Wars and cost more than 90,000 casualties in total.

    The Allies offered peace terms in the Frankfurt proposals in November 1813. Napoleon would remain as Emperor of the French, but it would be reduced to its “natural frontiers”. That meant that France could retain control of Belgium, Savoy and the Rhineland (the west bank of the Rhine River), while giving up control of all the rest, including all of Spain and the Netherlands, and most of Italy and Germany. Metternich told Napoleon these were the best terms the Allies were likely to offer; after further victories, the terms would be harsher and harsher. Metternich’s motivation was to maintain France as a balance against Russian threats while ending the highly destabilizing series of wars.

    Napoleon, expecting to win the war, delayed too long and lost this opportunity; by December the Allies had withdrawn the offer. When his back was to the wall in 1814 he tried to reopen peace negotiations on the basis of accepting the Frankfurt proposals. The Allies now had new, harsher terms that included the retreat of France to its 1791 boundaries, which meant the loss of Belgium, but Napoleon would remain Emperor. However, he rejected the term. The British wanted Napoleon permanently removed, and they prevailed, though Napoleon adamantly refused.

    Napoleon withdrew into France, his army reduced to 70,000 soldiers and little cavalry; he faced more than three times as many Allied troops. Joseph Bonaparte, Napoleon’s older brother, abdicated as king of Spain on 13 December 1813 and assumed the title of lieutenant general to save the collapsing empire. The French were surrounded: British armies pressed from the south, and other Coalition forces positioned to attack from the German states. By the middle of January 1814, the Coalition had already entered France’s borders and launched a two-pronged attack on Paris, with Prussia entering from the north, and Austria from the East, marching out of the capitulated Swiss confederation. The French Empire, however, would not go down so easily. Napoleon launched a series of victories in the Six Days’ Campaign. While they repulsed the coalition forces and delayed the capture of Paris by at least a full month, these were not significant enough to turn the tide. The coalitionaries camped on the outskirts of the capital on 29 March. A day later, they advanced onto the demoralised soldiers protecting the city. Joseph Bonaparte led a final battle at the gates of Paris. They were greatly outnumbered, as 30,000 French soldiers were pitted against a combined coalition force that was 5 times greater than theirs. They were defeated, and Joseph retreated out of the city. The leaders of Paris surrendered to the Coalition on the last day of March 1814.

    On 1 April, Alexander addressed the Sénat conservateur. Long docile to Napoleon, under Talleyrand’s prodding it had turned against him. Alexander told the Sénat that the Allies were fighting against Napoleon, not France, and they were prepared to offer honourable peace terms if Napoleon were removed from power. The next day, the Sénat passed the Acte de déchéance de l’Empereur (“Emperor’s Demise Act”), which declared Napoleon deposed.

    Napoleon had advanced as far as Fontainebleau when he learned that Paris had fallen. When Napoleon proposed the army march on the capital, his senior officers and marshals mutinied. On 4 April, led by Ney, the senior officers confronted Napoleon. When Napoleon asserted the army would follow him, Ney replied the army would follow its generals. While the ordinary soldiers and regimental officers wanted to fight on, the senior commanders were unwilling to continue. Without any senior officers or marshals, any prospective invasion of Paris would have been impossible. Bowing to the inevitable, on 4 April Napoleon abdicated in favour of his son, with Marie Louise as regent. However, the Allies refused to accept this under prodding from Alexander, who feared that Napoleon might find an excuse to retake the throne. Napoleon was then forced to announce his unconditional abdication only two days later.

    In his farewell address to the soldiers of Old Guard in 20 April, Napoleon said:

    “Soldiers of my Old Guard, I have come to bid you farewell. For twenty years you have accompanied me faithfully on the paths of honor and glory. …With men like you, our cause was [not] lost, but the war would have dragged on interminably, and it would have been a civil war. … So I am sacrificing our interests to those of our country. …Do not lament my fate; if I have agreed to live on, it is to serve our glory. I wish to write the history of the great deeds we have done together. Farewell, my children!”

    Exile to Elba

    The Allied Powers having declared that Emperor Napoleon was the sole obstacle to the restoration of peace in Europe, Emperor Napoleon, faithful to his oath, declares that he renounces, for himself and his heirs, the thrones of France and Italy, and that there is no personal sacrifice, even that of his life, which he is not ready to make in the interests of France. Done in the palace of Fontainebleau, 11 April 1814.

    In the Treaty of Fontainebleau, the Allies exiled Napoleon to Elba, an island of 12,000 inhabitants in the Mediterranean, 10 km (6 mi) off the Tuscan coast. They gave him sovereignty over the island and allowed him to retain the title of Emperor. Napoleon attempted suicide with a pill he had carried after nearly being captured by the Russians during the retreat from Moscow. Its potency had weakened with age, however, and he survived to be exiled, while his wife and son took refuge in Austria.

    He was conveyed to the island on HMS Undaunted by Captain Thomas Ussher, and he arrived at Portoferraio on 30 May 1814. In the first few months on Elba he created a small navy and army, developed the iron mines, oversaw the construction of new roads, issued decrees on modern agricultural methods, and overhauled the island’s legal and educational system.

    A few months into his exile, Napoleon learned that his ex-wife Josephine had died in France. He was devastated by the news, locking himself in his room and refusing to leave for two days.

    Hundred Days

    Separated from his wife and son, who had returned to Austria, cut off from the allowance guaranteed to him by the Treaty of Fontainebleau, and aware of rumours he was about to be banished to a remote island in the Atlantic Ocean, Napoleon escaped from Elba in the brig Inconstant on 26 February 1815 with 700 men. Two days later, he landed on the French mainland at Golfe-Juan and started heading north.

    The 5th Regiment was sent to intercept him and made contact just south of Grenoble on 7 March 1815. Napoleon approached the regiment alone, dismounted his horse and, when he was within gunshot range, shouted to the soldiers, “Here I am. Kill your Emperor, if you wish.” The soldiers quickly responded with, “Vive L’Empereur!” Ney, who had boasted to the restored Bourbon king, Louis XVIII, that he would bring Napoleon to Paris in an iron cage, affectionately kissed his former emperor and forgot his oath of allegiance to the Bourbon monarch. The two then marched together toward Paris with a growing army. The unpopular Louis XVIII fled to Belgium after realizing that he had little political support. On 13 March, the powers at the Congress of Vienna declared Napoleon an outlaw. Four days later, Great Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia each pledged to put 150,000 men into the field to end his rule.

    Napoleon arrived in Paris on 20 March and governed for a period now called the Hundred Days. By the start of June, the armed forces available to him had reached 200,000, and he decided to go on the offensive to attempt to drive a wedge between the oncoming British and Prussian armies. The French Army of the North crossed the frontier into the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, in modern-day Belgium.

    Napoleon’s forces fought two Coalition armies, commanded by the British Duke of Wellington and the Prussian Prince Blücher, at the Battle of Waterloo on 18 June 1815. Wellington’s army withstood repeated attacks by the French and drove them from the field while the Prussians arrived in force and broke through Napoleon’s right flank.

    Napoleon returned to Paris and found that both the legislature and the people had turned against him. Realizing that his position was untenable, he abdicated on 22 June in favour of his son. He left Paris three days later and settled at Josephine’s former palace in Malmaison (on the western bank of the Seine about 17 kilometres (11 mi) west of Paris). Even as Napoleon travelled to Paris, the Coalition forces swept through France (arriving in the vicinity of Paris on 29 June), with the stated intent of restoring Louis XVIII to the French throne.

    When Napoleon heard that Prussian troops had orders to capture him dead or alive, he fled to Rochefort, considering an escape to the United States. British ships were blocking every port. Napoleon surrendered to Captain Frederick Maitland on HMS Bellerophon on 15 July 1815.

    Exile on Saint Helena

    The British kept Napoleon on the island of Saint Helena in the Atlantic Ocean, 1,870 km (1,162 mi) from the west coast of Africa. They also took the precaution of sending a small garrison of soldiers to both Saint Helena and the uninhabited Ascension Island, which lay between St. Helena and Europe, to prevent any escape from the island.

    Napoleon was moved to Longwood House on Saint Helena in December 1815; it had fallen into disrepair, and the location was damp, windswept and unhealthy. The Times published articles insinuating the British government was trying to hasten his death. Napoleon often complained of the living conditions of Longwood House in letters to the island’s governor and his custodian, Hudson Lowe, while his attendants complained of “colds, catarrhs, damp floors and poor provisions.” Modern scientists have speculated that his later illness may have arisen from arsenic poisoning caused by copper arsenite in the wallpaper at Longwood House.

    With a small cadre of followers, Napoleon dictated his memoirs and grumbled about the living conditions. Lowe cut Napoleon’s expenditure, ruled that no gifts were allowed if they mentioned his imperial status, and made his supporters sign a guarantee they would stay with the prisoner indefinitely. When he held a dinner party, men were expected to wear military dress and “women [appeared] in evening gowns and gems. It was an explicit denial of the circumstances of his captivity”.

    While in exile, Napoleon wrote a book about Julius Caesar, one of his great heroes. He also studied English under the tutelage of Count Emmanuel de Las Cases with the main aim of being able to read English newspapers and books, as access to French newspapers and books was heavily restricted to him on Saint Helena. Napoleon also devoted himself to compiling a book “Mémorial de Ste-Hélène”, an account which reflected his self-depiction as a liberal, visionary ruler for European unification, deposed by reactionary elements of the Ancien Régime.[230]

    Another pastime of Napoleon’s while in exile was playing card games. The number of patiences named in his honour seems to suggest that he was an avid player of the solitary game. Napoleon at St Helena is described as being a favourite of his, while Napoleon’s Favourite (or St. Helena) is clearly a contender. Other games with a Napoleonic theme include Napoleon’s Flank, Napoleon’s Shoulder, Napoleon’s Square and Little Napoleon Patience. However, Arnold argues that, while Napoleon played cards in exile, the notion that he played numerous patience games is “based on a misunderstanding”.

    There were rumours of plots and even of his escape from Saint Helena, but in reality, no serious attempts were ever made. For English poet Lord Byron, Napoleon was the epitome of the Romantic hero, the persecuted, lonely, and flawed genius.

    Death

    Napoleon’s personal physician, Barry O’Meara, warned London that his declining state of health was mainly caused by the harsh treatment. During the last few years of his life, Napoleon confined himself for months on end in his damp, mold-infested and wretched habitation of Longwood. Years of isolation and loneliness took its toll on Napoleon’s mental health, having his court continually reduced, including the arrest of Count Emmanuel de Las Cases, conditions which Lord Holland used to bring about a debate regarding the treatment of Napoleon in captivity.

    In February 1821, Napoleon’s health began to deteriorate rapidly, and he reconciled with the Catholic Church. By March, he had become confined to bed. Napoleon died on 5 May 1821 at Longwood House at age 51, after making his last confession, Extreme Unction and Viaticum in the presence of Father Ange Vignali from his deathbed. His last words were, France, l’armée, tête d’armée, Joséphine (“France, the army, head of the army, Joséphine”).

    Shortly after his death, an autopsy was conducted and Francesco Antommarchi, the doctor conducting the autopsy, cut off Napoleon’s p***s. Napoleon’s original death mask was created around 6 May, although it is not clear which doctor created it. Napoleon’s heart and intestines were removed and contained separately in two sealed vessels, which were placed inside his coffin at his feet. In his will, he had asked to be buried on the banks of the Seine, but the British governor said he should be buried on Saint Helena, in the Valley of the Willows.

    In 1840, Louis Philippe I obtained permission from the British government to return Napoleon’s remains to France. His casket was opened to confirm that it still contained the former emperor. Despite being dead for nearly two decades, Napoleon had been very well preserved and not decomposed at all. On 15 December 1840, a state funeral was held. The horse-drawn hearse proceeded from the Arc de Triomphe down the Champs-Élysées, across the Place de la Concorde to the Esplanade des Invalides and then to the cupola in St Jérôme’s Chapel, where it remained until the tomb designed by Louis Visconti was completed.

    In 1861, Napoleon’s remains were entombed in a sarcophagus of red quartzite from Russia (often mistaken for porphyry) in the crypt under the dome at Les Invalides.

    Cause of death

    The cause of Napoleon’s death has been debated. His physician, François Carlo Antommarchi, led the autopsy, which found the cause of death to be stomach cancer. Antommarchi did not sign the official report. Napoleon’s father had died of stomach cancer, although this was apparently unknown at the time of the autopsy. Antommarchi found evidence of a stomach ulcer; this was the most convenient explanation for the British, who wanted to avoid criticism over their care of Napoleon.

    In 1955, the diaries of Napoleon’s valet, Louis Marchand, were published. His description of Napoleon in the months before his death led Sten Forshufvud in a 1961 paper in Nature to put forward other causes for his death, including deliberate arsenic poisoning. Arsenic was used as a poison during the era because it was undetectable when administered over a long period. Furthermore, in a 1978 book with Ben Weider, Forshufvud noted that Napoleon’s body was found to be well preserved when moved in 1840. Arsenic is a strong preservative, and therefore this supported the poisoning hypothesis. Forshufvud and Weider observed that Napoleon had attempted to quench abnormal thirst by drinking large amounts of orgeat syrup that contained cyanide compounds in the almonds used for flavouring. They maintained that the potassium tartrate used in his treatment prevented his stomach from expelling these compounds and that his thirst was a symptom of the poison. Their hypothesis was that the calomel given to Napoleon became an overdose, which killed him and left extensive tissue damage behind.

     According to a 2007 article, the type of arsenic found in Napoleon’s hair shafts was mineral, the most toxic, and according to toxicologist Patrick Kintz, this supported the conclusion that he was murdered.

    There have been modern studies that have supported the original autopsy finding. In a 2008 study, researchers analysed samples of Napoleon’s hair from throughout his life, as well as samples from his family and other contemporaries. All samples had high levels of arsenic, approximately 100 times higher than the current average. According to these researchers, Napoleon’s body was already heavily contaminated with arsenic as a boy, and the high arsenic concentration in his hair was not caused by intentional poisoning; people were constantly exposed to arsenic from glues and dyes throughout their lives. Studies published in 2007 and 2008 dismissed evidence of arsenic poisoning, suggesting peptic ulcer and gastric cancer as the cause of death.

    Religion

    Napoleon was baptised in Ajaccio on 21 July 1771. He was raised as a Catholic but never developed much faith, though he recalled the day of his First Communion in the Catholic Church to be the happiest day of his life. As an adult, Napoleon was a deist, believing in an absent and distant God. However, he had a keen appreciation of the power of organized religion in social and political affairs, and he paid a great deal of attention to bending it to his purposes. He noted the influence of Catholicism’s rituals and splendors.

    Napoleon had a civil marriage with Joséphine de Beauharnais, without religious ceremony. Napoleon was crowned Emperor on 2 December 1804 at Notre-Dame de Paris in a ceremony presided over by Pope Pius VII. On the eve of the coronation ceremony, and at the insistence of Pope Pius VII, a private religious wedding ceremony of Napoleon and Joséphine was celebrated. Cardinal Fesch performed the wedding. This marriage was annulled by tribunals under Napoleon’s control in January 1810. On 1 April 1810, Napoleon married the Austrian princess Marie Louise in a Catholic ceremony. Napoleon was excommunicated by the Pope through the bull Quum memoranda in 1809, but later reconciled with the Catholic Church before his death in 1821. While in exile in Saint Helena he is recorded to have said “I know men; and I tell you that Jesus Christ is not a man.” He also defended Muhammad (“a great man”) against Voltaire’s Mahomet.

    Concordat

    Seeking national reconciliation between revolutionaries and Catholics, Napoleon and Pope Pius VII signed the Concordat of 1801 on 15 July 1801. It solidified the Roman Catholic Church as the majority church of France and brought back most of its civil status. The hostility of devout Catholics against the state had now largely been resolved. The Concordat did not restore the vast church lands and endowments that had been seized during the revolution and sold off. As a part of the Concordat, Napoleon presented another set of laws called the Organic Articles.

    While the Concordat restored much power to the papacy, the balance of church–state relations had tilted firmly in Napoleon’s favour. He selected the bishops and supervised church finances. Napoleon and the Pope both found the Concordat useful. Similar arrangements were made with the Church in territories controlled by Napoleon, especially Italy and Germany. Now, Napoleon could win favour with the Catholics while also controlling Rome in a political sense. Napoleon said in April 1801, “Skillful conquerors have not got entangled with priests. They can both contain them and use them”. French children were issued a catechism that taught them to love and respect Napoleon.

    Arrest of Pope Pius VII

    In 1809, under Napoleon’s orders, Pope Pius VII was placed under arrest in Italy, and in 1812 the prisoner Pontiff was transferred to France, being held in the Palace of Fontainebleau. Because the arrest was made in a clandestine manner, some sources describe it as a kidnapping. In January 1813, Napoleon personally forced the Pope to sign a humiliating “Concordat of Fontainebleau” which was later repudiated by the Pontiff. The Pope was not released until 1814, when the Coalition invaded France.

    Religious emancipation

    Napoleon emancipated Jews, as well as Protestants in Catholic countries and Catholics in Protestant countries, from laws which restricted them to ghettos, and he expanded their rights to property, worship, and careers. Despite the antisemitic reaction to Napoleon’s policies from foreign governments and within France, he believed emancipation would benefit France by attracting Jews to the country given the restrictions they faced elsewhere.

    In 1806 an assembly of Jewish notables was gathered by Napoleon to discuss 12 questions broadly dealing with the relations between Jews and Christians, as well as other issues dealing with the Jewish ability to integrate into French society. Later, after the questions were answered in a satisfactory way according to the Emperor, a “great Sanhedrin” was brought together to transform the answers into decisions that would form the basis of the future status of the Jews in France and the rest of the empire Napoleon was building.

    He stated, “I will never accept any proposals that will obligate the Jewish people to leave France, because to me the Jews are the same as any other citizen in our country. It takes weakness to chase them out of the country, but it takes strength to assimilate them”. He was seen as so favourable to the Jews that the Russian Orthodox Church formally condemned him as “Antichrist and the Enemy of God”. One year after the final meeting of the Sanhedrin, on 17 March 1808, Napoleon placed the Jews on probation. Several new laws restricting the citizenship the Jews had been offered 17 years previously were instituted at that time. However, despite pressure from leaders of a number of Christian communities to refrain from granting Jews emancipation, within one year of the issue of the new restrictions, they were once again lifted in response to the appeal of Jews from all over France.

    Freemasonry

    It is not known for certain if Napoleon was initiated into Freemasonry. As Emperor, he appointed his brothers to Masonic offices under his jurisdiction: Louis was given the title of Deputy Grand Master in 1805; Jerome the title of Grand Master of the Grand Orient of Westphalia; Joseph was appointed Grand Master of the Grand Orient de France; and finally Lucien was a member of the Grand Orient of France.

    Personality

    Historians emphasize the strength of the ambition that took Napoleon from an obscure village to rule over most of Europe. In-depth academic studies about his early life conclude that up until age 2, he had a “gentle disposition”. His older brother, Joseph, frequently received their mother’s attention which made Napoleon more assertive and approval-driven. During his early schooling years, he would be harshly bullied by classmates for his Corsican identity and limited command of the French language. To withstand the stress he became domineering, eventually developing an inferiority complex.

    George F. E. Rudé stresses his “rare combination of will, intellect and physical vigour”. In one-on-one situations he typically had a hypnotic effect on people, seemingly bending the strongest leaders to his will. He understood military technology, but was not an innovator in that regard. He was an innovator in using the financial, bureaucratic, and diplomatic resources of France. He could rapidly dictate a series of complex commands to his subordinates, keeping in mind where major units were expected to be at each future point, and like a chess master, “seeing” the best plays moves ahead. This intellectual vigour was accompanied by a mixture of “remarkable charisma and willpower” and “a furious temper” exhibited during failure of his plans; which commanded respect as well as dread from his adjutants.

    Napoleon maintained strict, efficient work habits, prioritizing what needed to be done. He cheated at cards, but repaid the losses; he had to win at everything he attempted. He kept relays of staff and secretaries at work. Unlike many generals, Napoleon did not examine history to ask what Hannibal or Alexander or anyone else did in a similar situation. Critics said he won many battles simply because of luck; Napoleon responded, “Give me lucky generals”, arguing that “luck” comes to leaders who recognize opportunity, and seize it. Dwyer states that Napoleon’s victories at Austerlitz and Jena in 1805–06 heightened his sense of self-grandiosity, leaving him even more certain of his destiny and invincibility. “I am of the race that founds empires” he once boasted, deeming himself an heir to the Ancient Romans.

    In terms of influence on events, it was more than Napoleon’s personality that took effect. He reorganized France itself to supply the men and money needed for wars. He inspired his men—the Duke of Wellington said his presence on the battlefield was worth 40,000 soldiers, for he inspired confidence from privates to field marshals. The force of his personality neutralized material difficulties as his soldiers fought with the confidence that with Napoleon in charge they would surely win.

    Image

    The military historian Martin van Creveld has described him as “the most competent human being who ever lived”. Since his death, many towns, streets, ships, and even cartoon characters have been named after him. He has been portrayed in hundreds of films and discussed in hundreds of thousands of books and articles. The German legal scholar Carl Theoder Welcker described Napoleon as “the greatest master of Machiavellism”.

    When his contemporaries met him in person, many were surprised by his apparently unremarkable physical appearance in contrast to his significant deeds and reputation, especially in his youth, when he was consistently described as small and thin. English painter Joseph Farington, who observed Napoleon personally in 1802, commented that “Samuel Rogers stood a little way from me and… seemed to be disappointed in the look of [Napoleon’s] countenance [“face”] and said it was that of a little Italian.” Farington said Napoleon’s eyes were “lighter, and more of a grey, than I should have expected from his complexion”, that “his person is below middle size”, and that “his general aspect was milder than I had before thought it.”

    A personal friend of Napoleon’s said that when he first met him in Brienne-le-Château as a young man, Napoleon was only notable “for the dark color of his complexion, for his piercing and scrutinising glance, and for the style of his conversation”; he also said that Napoleon was personally a serious and somber man: “his conversation bore the appearance of ill-humor, and he was certainly not very amiable.” Johann Ludwig Wurstemberger, who accompanied Napoleon from Camp Fornio in 1797 and on the Swiss campaign of 1798, noted that “Bonaparte was rather slight and emaciated-looking; his face, too, was very thin, with a dark complexion… his black, unpowdered hair hung down evenly over both shoulders”, but that, despite his slight and unkempt appearance,” is looks and expression were earnest and powerful.”

    Denis Davydov met him personally and considered him remarkably average in appearance:

    His face was slightly swarthy, with regular features. His nose was not very large, but straight, with a slight, hardly noticeable bend. The hair on his head was dark reddish-blond; his eyebrows and eyelashes were much darker than the colour of his hair, and his blue eyes, set off by the almost black lashes, gave him a most pleasing expression … The man I saw was of short stature, just over five feet tall, rather heavy although he was only 37 years old.

    During the Napoleonic Wars, he was taken seriously by the British press as a dangerous tyrant, poised to invade. Despite or due to his average size, Napoleon was mocked in British newspapers as a short tempered small man and he was nicknamed “Little Boney in a strong fit”. A nursery rhyme warned children that Bonaparte ravenously ate naughty people; the “bogeyman”. The British propaganda about his supposedly small size was so successful that many people today “know” very little besides this untruth about him. At 1.57 metres (5 ft 2 in), he had the height of an average French male but was short for an aristocrat or officer (partly why he was assigned to the artillery, since at the time the infantry and cavalry required more commanding figures).

    Some historians believe his size at death was incorrectly recorded due to use of an obsolete old French yardstick (a French foot equals 33 cm, while an English foot equals 30.47 cm). But Napoleon was a champion of the metric system and had no use for the old yardsticks that had been out of use since 1793 in France. It is likely that he was 1.57 m (5 ft 2 in), the height measured on St. Helena (a British island), since he would have most likely been measured with an English yardstick rather than a yardstick of the French Old Regime. Napoleon surrounded himself with tall bodyguards and was affectionately nicknamed le petit caporal (the little corporal), reflecting his reported camaraderie with his soldiers rather than his height.

    When he became First Consul and later Emperor, Napoleon eschewed his general’s uniform and habitually wore the green colonel uniform (non-Hussar) of a colonel of the Chasseur à Cheval of the Imperial Guard, the regiment that served as his personal escort many times, with a large bicorne. He also habitually wore (usually on Sundays) the blue uniform of a colonel of the Imperial Guard Foot Grenadiers (blue with white facings and red cuffs). He also wore his Légion d’honneur star, medal and ribbon, and the Order of the Iron Crown decorations, white French-style culottes and white stockings. This was in contrast to the complex uniforms with many decorations of his marshals and those around him.

    In his later years he gained quite a bit of weight and had a complexion considered pale or sallow, something contemporaries took note of. Novelist Paul de Kock, who saw him in 1811 on the balcony of the Tuileries, called Napoleon “yellow, obese, and bloated”. A British captain who met him in 1815 stated “I felt very much disappointed, as I believe everyone else did, in his appearance … He is fat, rather what we call pot-bellied, and although his leg is well shaped, it is rather clumsy … He is very sallow, with light grey eyes, and rather thin, greasy-looking brown hair, and altogether a very nasty, priestlike-looking fellow.”

    The stock character of Napoleon is a comically short “petty tyrant” and this has become a cliché in popular culture. He is often portrayed wearing a large bicorne hat—sideways—with a hand-in-waistcoat gesture—a reference to the painting produced in 1812 by Jacques-Louis David. In 1908 Alfred Adler, a psychologist, cited Napoleon to describe an inferiority complex in which short people adopt an over-aggressive behaviour to compensate for lack of height; this inspired the term Napoleon complex.

    Reforms

    Napoleon instituted various reforms, such as higher education, a tax code, road and sewer systems, and established the Banque de France, the first central bank in French history. He negotiated the Concordat of 1801 with the Catholic Church, which sought to reconcile the mostly Catholic population to his regime. It was presented alongside the Organic Articles, which regulated public worship in France. He dissolved the Holy Roman Empire prior to German Unification later in the 19th century. The sale of the Louisiana Territory to the United States doubled the size of the United States.

    In May 1802, he instituted the Legion of Honour, a substitute for the old royalist decorations and orders of chivalry, to encourage civilian and military achievements; the order is still the highest decoration in France.

    Napoleonic Code

    Napoleon’s set of civil laws, the Code Civil—now often known as the Napoleonic Code—was prepared by committees of legal experts under the supervision of Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès, the Second Consul. Napoleon participated actively in the sessions of the Council of State that revised the drafts. The development of the code was a fundamental change in the nature of the civil law legal system with its stress on clearly written and accessible law. Other codes (“Les cinq codes”) were commissioned by Napoleon to codify criminal and commerce law; a Code of Criminal Instruction was published, which enacted rules of due process.

    The Napoleonic code was adopted throughout much of Continental Europe, though only in the lands he conquered, and remained in force after Napoleon’s defeat. Napoleon said: “My true glory is not to have won forty battles … Waterloo will erase the memory of so many victories. … But … what will live forever, is my Civil Code”. The Code influences a quarter of the world’s jurisdictions such as those in Continental Europe, the Americas, and Africa.

    Dieter Langewiesche described the code as a “revolutionary project” that spurred the development of bourgeois society in Germany by the extension of the right to own property and an acceleration towards the end of feudalism. Napoleon reorganized what had been the Holy Roman Empire, made up of about three hundred Kleinstaaterei, into a more streamlined forty-state Confederation of the Rhine; this helped promote the German Confederation and the unification of Germany in 1871.

    The movement toward Italian unification was similarly precipitated by Napoleonic rule. These changes contributed to the development of nationalism and the nation state.

    Napoleon implemented a wide array of liberal reforms in France and across Continental Europe, especially in Italy and Germany, as summarized by British historian Andrew Roberts:

    The ideas that underpin our modern world—meritocracy, equality before the law, property rights, religious toleration, modern secular education, sound finances, and so on—were championed, consolidated, codified and geographically extended by Napoleon. To them he added a rational and efficient local administration, an end to rural banditry, the encouragement of science and the arts, the abolition of feudalism and the greatest codification of laws since the fall of the Roman Empire.

    Napoleon directly overthrew remnants of feudalism in much of western Continental Europe. He liberalized property laws, ended seigneurial dues, abolished the guild of merchants and craftsmen to facilitate entrepreneurship, legalized divorce, closed the Jewish ghettos and made Jews equal to everyone else. The Inquisition ended as did the Holy Roman Empire. The power of church courts and religious authority was sharply reduced and equality under the law was proclaimed for all men.

    Warfare

    In the field of military organization, Napoleon borrowed from previous theorists such as Jacques Antoine Hippolyte, Comte de Guibert, and from the reforms of preceding French governments, and then developed much of what was already in place. He continued the policy, which emerged from the Revolution, of promotion based primarily on merit.

    Corps replaced divisions as the largest army units, mobile artillery was integrated into reserve batteries, the staff system became more fluid and cavalry returned as an important formation in French military doctrine. These methods are now referred to as essential features of Napoleonic warfare. Though he consolidated the practice of modern conscription introduced by the Directory, one of the restored monarchy’s first acts was to end it.

    His opponents learned from Napoleon’s innovations. The increased importance of artillery after 1807 stemmed from his creation of a highly mobile artillery force, the growth in artillery numbers, and changes in artillery practices. As a result of these factors, Napoleon, rather than relying on infantry to wear away the enemy’s defences, now could use massed artillery as a spearhead to pound a break in the enemy’s line that was then exploited by supporting infantry and cavalry. McConachy rejects the alternative theory that growing reliance on artillery by the French army beginning in 1807 was an outgrowth of the declining quality of the French infantry and, later, France’s inferiority in cavalry numbers. Weapons and other kinds of military technology remained static through the Revolutionary and Napoleonic eras, but 18th-century operational mobility underwent change.

    Napoleon’s biggest influence was in the conduct of warfare. Antoine-Henri Jomini explained Napoleon’s methods in a widely used textbook that influenced all European and American armies. Napoleon was regarded by the influential military theorist Carl von Clausewitz as a genius in the operational art of war, and historians rank him as a great military commander. Wellington, when asked who was the greatest general of the day, answered: “In this age, in past ages, in any age, Napoleon”.

    Under Napoleon, a new emphasis towards the destruction, not just outmaneuvering, of enemy armies emerged. Invasions of enemy territory occurred over broader fronts which made wars costlier and more decisive. The political effect of war increased; defeat for a European power meant more than the loss of isolated enclaves. Near-Carthaginian peaces intertwined whole national efforts, intensifying the Revolutionary phenomenon of total war.

    Metric system

    The official introduction of the metric system in September 1799 was unpopular in large sections of French society. Napoleon’s rule greatly aided adoption of the new standard not only across France but also across the French sphere of influence. Napoleon took a retrograde step in 1812 when he passed legislation to introduce the mesures usuelles (traditional units of measurement) for retail trade, a system of measure that resembled the pre-revolutionary units but were based on the kilogram and the metre; for example, the livre metrique (metric pound) was 500 g, in contrast to the value of the livre du roi (the king’s pound). Other units of measure were rounded in a similar manner prior to the definitive introduction of the metric system across parts of Europe in the middle of the 19th century.

    Education

    Napoleon’s educational reforms laid the foundation of a modern system of education in France and throughout much of Europe. Napoleon synthesized the best academic elements from the Ancien Régime, The Enlightenment, and the Revolution, with the aim of establishing a stable, well-educated and prosperous society. He made French the only official language. He left some primary education in the hands of religious orders, but he offered public support to secondary education. Napoleon founded a number of state secondary schools (lycées) designed to produce a standardized education that was uniform across France.

    All students were taught the sciences along with modern and classical languages. Unlike the system during the Ancien Régime, religious topics did not dominate the curriculum, although they were present with the teachers from the clergy. Napoleon hoped to use religion to produce social stability. He gave special attention to the advanced centers, such as the École Polytechnique, that provided both military expertise and state-of-the-art research in science. Napoleon made some of the first efforts at establishing a system of secular and public education. The system featured scholarships and strict discipline, with the result being a French educational system that outperformed its European counterparts, many of which borrowed from the French system.

    Criticism

    In the political realm, historians debate whether Napoleon was “an enlightened despot who laid the foundations of modern Europe” or “a megalomaniac who wrought greater misery than any man before the coming of Hitler”. Many historians have concluded that he had grandiose foreign policy ambitions. The Continental powers as late as 1808 were willing to give him nearly all of his gains and titles, but some scholars maintain he was overly aggressive and pushed for too much, until his empire collapsed.

    He was considered a tyrant and usurper by his opponents at the time and ever since. His critics charge that he was not troubled when faced with the prospect of war and death for thousands, turned his search for undisputed rule into a series of conflicts throughout Europe and ignored treaties and conventions alike. His role in the Haitian Revolution and decision to reinstate slavery in France’s overseas colonies are controversial and affect his reputation. French liberal intellectual Benjamin Constant (1767–1830) was a staunch critic of political homogenisation and personality cult that dominated Napoleonic France and wrote several books condemning Napoleon such as “The Spirit of Conquest and Usurpation” (1814) and “Principles of Politics Applicable to All Representative Governments” (1815). According to Constant, Bonapartism was even more tyrannical than the Bourbon monarchy, since it forced the masses to support its grand universalist narrative through imperialism and jingoism.

    Napoleon institutionalized plunder of conquered territories: French museums contain art stolen by Napoleon’s forces from across Europe. Artefacts were brought to the Musée du Louvre for a grand central museum; an example which would later be followed by others. He was compared to Adolf Hitler by the historian Pieter Geyl in 1947, and Claude Ribbe in 2005. David G. Chandler, a historian of Napoleonic warfare, wrote in 1973 that, “Nothing could be more degrading to the former [Napoleon] and more flattering to the latter [Hitler]. The comparison is odious. On the whole Napoleon was inspired by a noble dream, wholly dissimilar from Hitler’s… Napoleon left great and lasting testimonies to his genius—in codes of law and national identities which survive to the present day. Adolf Hitler left nothing but destruction.”

    Critics argue Napoleon’s true legacy must reflect the loss of status for France and needless deaths brought by his rule: historian Victor Davis Hanson writes, “After all, the military record is unquestioned—17 years of wars, perhaps six million Europeans dead, France bankrupt, her overseas colonies lost.” McLynn states that, “He can be viewed as the man who set back European economic life for a generation by the dislocating impact of his wars.” Vincent Cronin replies that such criticism relies on the flawed premise that Napoleon was responsible for the wars which bear his name, when in fact France was the victim of a series of coalitions that aimed to destroy the ideals of the Revolution.

    British military historian Correlli Barnett calls him “a social misfit” who exploited France for his personal megalomaniac goals. He says Napoleon’s reputation is exaggerated. French scholar Jean Tulard provided an influential account of his image as a saviour. Louis Bergeron has praised the numerous changes he made to French society, especially regarding the law as well as education. His greatest failure was the Russian invasion. Many historians have blamed Napoleon’s poor planning, but Russian scholars instead emphasize the Russian response, noting the notorious winter weather was just as hard on the defenders.

    The large and growing historiography in French, English, Russian, Spanish and other languages has been summarized and evaluated by numerous scholars.

    Propaganda and memory

    Napoleon’s use of propaganda contributed to his rise to power, legitimated his régime, and established his image for posterity. Strict censorship, controlling various key constituents of the press, books, theatre, and art were part of his propaganda scheme, aimed at portraying him as bringing desperately wanted peace and stability to France. The propagandistic rhetoric changed in relation to events and to the atmosphere of Napoleon’s reign, focusing first on his role as a general in the army and identification as a soldier, and moving to his role as emperor and a civil leader. Specifically targeting his civilian audience, Napoleon fostered a relationship with the contemporary art community, taking an active role in commissioning and controlling different forms of art production to suit his propaganda goals.

    In England, Russia and across Europe—though not in France—Napoleon was a popular topic of caricature.

    Hazareesingh (2004) explores how Napoleon’s image and memory are best understood. They played a key role in collective political defiance of the Bourbon restoration monarchy in 1815–1830. People from different walks of life and areas of France, particularly Napoleonic veterans, drew on the Napoleonic legacy and its connections with the ideals of the 1789 Revolution.

    Widespread rumours of Napoleon’s return from St. Helena and Napoleon as an inspiration for patri*tism, individual and collective liberties, and political mobilization manifested themselves in seditious materials, displaying the tricolor and rosettes. There were also subversive activities celebrating anniversaries of Napoleon’s life and reign and disrupting royal celebrations—they demonstrated the prevailing and successful goal of the varied supporters of Napoleon to constantly destabilize the Bourbon regime.

    Datta (2005) shows that, following the collapse of militaristic Boulangism in the late 1880s, the Napoleonic legend was divorced from party politics and revived in popular culture. Concentrating on two plays and two novels from the period—Victorien Sardou’s Madame Sans-Gêne (1893), Maurice Barrès’s Les Déracinés (1897), Edmond Rostand’s L’Aiglon (1900), and André de Lorde and Gyp’s Napoléonette (1913)—Datta examines how writers and critics of the Belle Époque exploited the Napoleonic legend for diverse political and cultural ends.

    Reduced to a minor character, the new fictional Napoleon became not a world historical figure but an intimate one, fashioned by individuals’ needs and consumed as popular entertainment. In their attempts to represent the emperor as a figure of national unity, proponents and detractors of the Third Republic used the legend as a vehicle for exploring anxieties about gender and fears about the processes of democratization that accompanied this new era of mass politics and culture.

    International Napoleonic Congresses take place regularly, with participation by members of the French and American military, French politicians and scholars from different countries. In January 2012, the mayor of Montereau-Fault-Yonne, near Paris—the site of a late victory of Napoleon—proposed development of Napoleon’s Bivouac, a commemorative theme park at a projected cost of 200 million euros.

    Long-term influence outside France

    Napoleon was responsible for spreading the values of the French Revolution to other countries, especially in legal reform. After the fall of Napoleon, not only was it retained by conquered countries including the Netherlands, Belgium, parts of Italy and Germany, but it has been used as the basis of certain parts of law outside Europe including the Dominican Republic, the US state of Louisiana and the Canadian province of Quebec. The code was also used as a model in many parts of Latin America. The reputation of Napoleon in Poland has been favourable, especially for his support of independence, opposition to Russia, his legal code, the abolition of serfdom, and the introduction of modern middle class administration.

    Napoleon had an influence on the establishment of modern Germany. He caused the end of the Holy Roman Empire and helped create middle sized states such as Bavaria and Württemberg along the great powers Prussia and Austria. Although he also directly or indirectly helped to reduce the number of German states (from about 300 to fewer than 50), the middle sized states tried to prevent the unification of Germany as a federalist state. A byproduct of the French occupation was a strong development in German nationalism which eventually turned the German Confederation into the German Empire after a series of conflicts and other political developments.

    Napoleon indirectly began the process of Latin American independence when he invaded Spain in 1808. The abdication of King Charles IV and renunciation of his son, Ferdinand VII created a power vacuum that was filled by native born political leaders such as Simón Bolívar and José de San Martín. Such leaders embraced nationalistic sentiments influenced by French nationalism and led successful independence movements in Latin America.

    Napoleon also significantly aided the United States when he agreed to sell the territory of Louisiana for 15 million dollars during the presidency of Thomas Jefferson. That territory almost doubled the size of the United States, adding the equivalent of 13 states to the Union.

    From 1796 to 2020, at least 95 major ships were named for him. In the 21st century, at least 18 Napoleon ships are operated under the flag of France, as well as Indonesia, Germany, Italy, Australia, Argentina, India, Netherlands, and the United Kingdom.

    Wives, mistresses, and children

    Napoleon married Joséphine (née Marie Josèphe Rose Tascher de La Pagerie) in 1796, when he was 26; she was a 32-year-old widow whose first husband, Alexandre de Beauharnais, had been executed during the Reign of Terror. Five days after Alexandre de Beauharnais’ death, the Reign of Terror initiator Maximilien de Robespierre was overthrown and executed, and, with the help of high-placed friends, Joséphine was freed. Until she met Bonaparte, she had been known as “Rose”, a name which he disliked. He called her “Joséphine” instead, and she went by this name henceforth. Bonaparte often sent her love letters while on his campaigns. He formally adopted her son Eugène and second cousin (via marriage) Stéphanie and arranged dynastic marriages for them. Joséphine had her daughter Hortense marry Napoleon’s brother Louis.

    Joséphine had lovers, such as Lieutenant Hippolyte Charles, during Napoleon’s Italian campaign. Napoleon learnt of that affair and a letter he wrote about it was intercepted by the British and published widely, to embarrass Napoleon. Napoleon had his own affairs too: during the Egyptian campaign he took Pauline Bellisle Fourès, the wife of a junior officer, as his mistress. She became known as “Cleopatra”.

    While Napoleon’s mistresses had children by him, Joséphine did not produce an heir, possibly because of either the stresses of her imprisonment during the Reign of Terror or an abortion she may have had in her twenties. Napoleon chose divorce so he could remarry in search of an heir. Despite his divorce from Josephine, Napoleon showed his dedication to her for the rest of his life. When he heard the news of her death while in exile in Elba, he locked himself in his room and would not come out for two full days. Her name would also be his final word on his deathbed in 1821.

    On 11 March 1810 by proxy, he married the 19-year-old Marie Louise, Archduchess of Austria, and a great-niece of Marie Antoinette. Thus he had married into a German royal and imperial family. Louise was less than happy with the arrangement, at least at first, stating: “Just to see the man would be the worst form of torture”. Her great-aunt had been executed in France, while Napoleon had fought numerous campaigns against Austria all throughout his military career. However, she seemed to warm up to him over time. After her wedding, she wrote to her father: “He loves me very much. I respond to his love sincerely. There is something very fetching and very eager about him that is impossible to resist”.

    Napoleon and Marie Louise remained married until his death, though she did not join him in exile on Elba and thereafter never saw her husband again. The couple had one child, Napoleon Francis Joseph Charles (1811–1832), known from birth as the King of Rome. He became Napoleon II in 1814 and reigned for only two weeks. He was awarded the title of the Duke of Reichstadt in 1818 and died of tuberculosis aged 21, with no children.

    Napoleon acknowledged one illegitimate son: Charles Léon (1806–1881) by Eléonore Denuelle de La Plaigne. Alexandre Colonna-Walewski (1810–1868), the son of his mistress Maria Walewska, although acknowledged by Walewska’s husband, was also widely known to be his child, and the DNA of his direct male descendant has been used to help confirm Napoleon’s Y-chromosome haplotype. He may have had further unacknowledged illegitimate offspring as well, such as Eugen Megerle von Mühlfeld by Emilie Victoria Kraus von Wolfsberg and Hélène Napoleone Bonaparte (1816–1907) by Albine de Montholon.

    0
    0

    Chioma Avril Rowland Biography, Birthday, Net Worth, Husband, Father, Mother, Pictures, Wiki Facts

    1 month ago in Biography

     17 total views

    0
    0

    Don Jazzy’s Biography: Birthday, Net Worth, Houses, Spouse, Wiki Facts And More

    1 month ago in Biography

     17 total views

    Don Jazzy (born Michael Collins Ajereh) is a household name in the Nigerian music industry.

    Currently, the CEO of Mavin Records and also the founder of now-defunct Mo’ Hits Records, Don Jazzy works as a music producer, audio engineer, singer, and songwriter.

    He gained prominence after producing albums, No Long Thing, and Rundown/Funk You Up. He has also worked with music artists such as D’Banj, Sauce Kid (Sinzu), Dr SIDIkechukwuKweenD’PrinceJay-Z, and Kanye West in a very illustrious career.

    On the 3rd of April 2021, the Nigerian music producer sparked mixed reactions on social media after sharing a picture of his ex-wife, whom he got married to in 2001 while in London.

    DON JAZZY

    WIKI FACTS & ABOUT DATA
    Full Name: Michael Collins Ajereh
    Stage Name: Don Jazzy
    Born: 26 November 1982 
    Birth Place: Unmuahia
    State Of Origin: Abia State
    Nationality: Nigerian
    Wife • Spouse: Michelle Jackson (Ex.)
    Occupation: Record Producer • Businessman
    Net Worth: $15,000,000-$20,000,000

    Early Life

    Michael Collins Ajereh a.k.a Don Jazzy was born in Unmuahia, Abia State, into the family of Mr. and Mrs. Collins Enebeli Ajereh on the 26th of November, 1982. His father was an indigene of the Isoko tribe in Delta State while his mother was an Igbo princess from Abia State.

    Don Jazzy was raised with his brother Charles Enebeli (popularly called D’Prince), in Ajegunle, Lagos State, after his parents moved westward in the late 80s. At the time, he grew fond of music and soon learned how to play the bass guitar and piano instruments. He was also known for his skill in performing traditional and percussion instruments.

    The award-winning music producer struggled as a toddler in the Ajegunle locale. It took him some years to adapt to life in the City, after moving from Abia State.

    At the start of the millennium, Don Jazzy got the chance to travel overseas, after his uncle requested that he played the drums for a church in London. Eventually, he got a job as a security guard in McDonald’s and struck valuable alliances with music artists such as Solek, JJC, Kas, Jesse Jagz, The 419 Squad, and D’Banj.

    Education

    Don Jazzy began and completed his primary education at Ajegunle, in Lagos State, before enrolling at Federal Government College, Lagos. While at school, he engaged himself with the school’s music club, making the most of his spare time.

    After obtaining his Secondary School Certificates at both Junior and Senior levels, Don Jazzy secured admission to study Business Management at Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo state.

    READ ALSO: Tiwa Savage Biography: Wiki Facts, Net Worth, Son, Boyfriend, Husband, Website, Leaked S*xtape Video & More

    Career

    Don Jazzy teamed up with music artiste, D’Banj to start Mo’ Hits Records in 2004. Together, they created a music brand that lasted almost a decade.

    Under the music label, he produced albums, No Long Thing, and Rundown/Funk You Up. He became known for his famous line, It’s Don Jazzy Again!, which served as an introduction for songs in which he featured. Don Jazzy worked with Wande Coal, D’Prince, and Dr. SID, contributing to the production of landmark albums such as Wande Coal‘s Mushin 2 MoHits.

    With vast experience in audio engineering and music production, he went on to feature in background vocals for D’BanjSauce KidDr. SIDIkechukwuKweenD’Prince, and Jay-Z, gaining International recognition after working as a producer at Very Good Beatz for Kanye West in 2011. He also worked with Jay-Z during that period. In March 2012, Don Jazzy and D’Banj decided to part ways, due to artistic differences.

    Mavin Records

    On the 7th of May, 2012, Don Jazzy launched another record label, Mavin Records, and released an album starring all signed artists. Songs recorded under the album include; Amarachi, Oma Ga, Take Banana and Chocolate, YOLO, and then I’m a MAVIN anthem. The label also signed the talented music artiste, Tiwa Savage.

    READ ALSO: Crayon Biography: Net worth, Birthday, Songs, Girlfriend, Wiki Fact, Real Name, Wife, Record Label & More

    On the 7th of November, 2013, Wande Coal parted ways with Mavin Records after a conflict with Ajereh, a member of the group, two days earlier. Reekado Banks‘ also left the music outfit some years later. Recently, Mavin Records signed Ayra Starr, a young, talented female music artist.

    Mavin Records Artistes

    Mavin Records houses and was home to the following Nigerian musicians;

    • Tiwa Savage*
    • Ikechukwu*
    • D’Banj*
    • Dr Sid
    • D’Prince
    • Rema
    • Reekado Banks*
    • Ayra Starr
    • Crayon
    • Johnny Drille
    • Di’Ja
    • Iyanya
    • Ladipoe
    • Wande Coal*
    • Ruger
    • DJ Big N
    • Korede Bello
    • DNA Twins
    • 6xSlatt
    • Magixx

    Personal Life

    On the 3rd of April 2021, the Nigerian music producer, Don Jazzy sparked mixed reactions on social media after sharing a picture of his ex-wife, Michelle Jackson whom he got married to in 2001 while in London.

    He also announced his intentions of getting a new girlfriend in December 2020, stating that he had a big crush on American music artist, Rihanna.

    READ ALSO: Sonia Uche Biography: Birthday, Net Worth, Siblings, Husband, Movies, Family, Pictures, Wiki Facts, Instagram, Boyfriend, Parents

    Don Jazzy is also a man of affluence. Earlier in the year, he shared a photo on Instagram of his newly acquired house worth 300 million naira in Lekki, Lagos State. He also owns an array of expensive cars namely;

    • A 2016 Cadillac Escalade.
    • A Bentley Continental Flying Spur.
    • A Range Rover Sports.
    • A Porsche 911 Carrera.

    He commands a large fan base on social media, with more than ten million followers on Instagram and over a million on his Facebook page.

    READ ALSO: Nollywood Star “Peace Onuoha” Biography: Instagram Handle, Net Worth, Pictures, Boyfriend, Movies, Wiki Facts, Parents, Date Of Birth

    Net Worth

    Currently a leading icon in the entertainment industry, Don Jazzy is also renowned for his influence in the development of several music artists in Nigeria. According to recent findings, his net worth is estimated between $15,000,000-$20,000,000.

    READ ALSO: Pete Edochie Biography: Children, Birthday, Sons, Wife, Family, Net Worth, Daughters, Movies, Wiki Facts, Pictures, Grandchildren

    Social Media Handles

    • Instagram- @donjazzy
    • Twitter- @DONJAZZY
    • Facebook- @Don Jazzy (Musician/Band)
    • TikTok- @donjazzy
    • Snapchat- @mavinboss
    • Phone Number- Private

    READ ALSO: Tiwa Savage Biography: Wiki Facts, Net Worth, Son, Boyfriend, Husband, Website, Leaked S*xtape Video & More

    0
    0

    Wizkid’s Biography, Albums, Children, Net Worth, Birthday, Wiki Facts, Girlfriend(s), Photos, Awards, Grammy, Wife & More

    1 month ago in Biography

     18 total views,  1 views today

    Ayodeji Ibrahim Balogun (born July 16th, 1990) is a Nigerian music superstar who is known professionally as Wizkid or Starboy. He is considered to be one of the top three Afrobeats artists from the African continent due to his influence in growing the music culture over the years up. Formerly known by the stage name, Lil PrinceWizkid became a national sensation after the release of Holla At Your Boy, the lead single in his chart-topping debut album, Superstar. He is also addressed as Big Wiz or Machala.

    READ ALSO: Chioma Avril Rowland Biography, Birthday, Net Worth, Husband, Father, Mother, Pictures, Wiki Facts

    He rose to the international limelight in 2016 after he lent his vocals to Drake‘s award-winning song, One Dance, which was a global hit. The singer and songwriter dropped his fourth studio album, Made In Lagos, in October 2020, and since it has been released into the public domain, the project has gone on to win several laurels and set different records. One of the album’s top singles, Essence, became the first Nigerian song to chart on Billboard Hot 100. 

    READ ALSO: Sonia Uche Biography: Birthday, Net Worth, Siblings, Husband, Movies, Family, Pictures, Wiki Facts, Instagram, Boyfriend, Parents

    Ayodeji Ibrahim Balogun (born July 16, 1990) is a Nigerian music Megastar. He is known professional as Wizkid or Starboy, or Big Wiz. He came to the limelight after signing to Empire Mates Entertainment (E.M.E) in 2009 and releasing his hit single, Holla At Your Boy.

    The song which won him millions of fans set the pace for Wizkid to drop commercially successful albums in the past twelve years. His latest album, Made In Lagos, has won him international acclaim as it reached number one on the Billboard World Album Chart.

    READ ALSO: Tiwa Savage Biography: Wiki Facts, Net Worth, Son, Boyfriend, Husband, Website, Leaked S*xtape Video & More

    One of the album’s singles, Essence featuring Tems, has become the first Nigerian song to chart on the Billboard Hot 100. In addition, it was announced in February 2021 that Wizkid has attained the honor of being the most-streamed Nigerian artist on Spotify, amassing over 3.4 billion streams from all his works.

    READ ALSO: Don Jazzy’s Biography: Birthday, Net Worth, Houses, Spouse, Wiki Facts And More

    Ayodeji Ibrahim Balogun, who became popularized professionally with Wizkid is a Nigerian singer, rapper, and songwriter whose present in the Nigerian industry is classified as a blessing.

    WIZKID (STARBOY)
    WIKI FACTS & ABOUT DATA
    Full Name: Ayodeji Ibrahim Balogun
    Stage Name(s): Wizkid (Starboy)
    Born: 16 July 1990 
    Place of Birth: Surulere, Lagos, Nigeria
    State Of Origin: Lagos State
    Nationality: Nigerian
    Parents: Ibrahim Balogun, Jane Dolapo Balogun
    Children: Boluwatife Balogun, Zion Ayo-Balogun, Ayodeji Ibrahim Balogun Jr.
    Height: 1.62 m
    Siblings: Yetunde Balogun, Lade Balogun
    Girlfriend • Wife:  

    Tonto DikehSeyi Shay, Tiwa Savage, Oluwanisola Ogudugu (ex.), Binta Diallo (ex.), Jada Pollock (curr.), Tems (rum.)

    Occupation: Singer • Songwriter
    Net Worth: $30,000,000

     

    0
    0

    Crayon Biography: Net worth, Birthday, Songs, Girlfriend, Wiki Fact, Real Name, Wife, Record Label & More

    1 month ago in Biography

     32 total views

    Sensational Nigerian musical artist “Charles Chibueze Chukwu” famously known as Crayon is a young fast-rising Nigerian Afropop artist and songwriter.

    Crayon, the Ebonyi State indigene singer was born on November 21st, 2000, in Lagos State, Nigeria and he’s currently signed under Blowtime Entertainment an imprint of Mavins Record.

    Musical Career

    Crayon started his musical adventure in 2008, while working on mastering his art, he met with record producer Ozedikus who produced Rema’s “Corny” and other songs by the start artist.

    On May 25, 2019, Crayon was picked up by Baby Fresh, a producer under Mavin Records who saw the future of the singer, and immediately signed him under his record label “BlowTime Entertainment,” an imprint of Don Jazzy’s Mavin Records.

    He was featured on Mavins all-stars “All Is In Order” single which also featured DNARemaDon Jazzy, and Korede Bello.

    READ ALSO: Sonia Uche Biography: Birthday, Net Worth, Siblings, Husband, Movies, Family, Pictures, Wiki Facts, Instagram, Boyfriend, Parents

    He was featured also featured by Ladipoe on “Based On Kpa” which made waves and received a lot of airplay.

    On July 12, 2019, Crayon dropped his official project under Blowtime Entertainment/Mavin Records “Cray Cray,” a six-track EP project.

    A single “So Fine” off the project video was shot and directed by Clarance Peter.

    Crayon Songs

    Crayon under Blowtime and Mavins’ released some amazing songs and projects! Some of them are shown below:

    • Too Correct (featuring Rema)
    • So Fine
    • Gock Am
    • Bamiloke
    • Kpano
    • Jackpot
    • Mo Bad
    • Aye O
    • Sometime
    • Unusual
    • In Sync
    • Overloading (featuring LadipoeMagixxAyra StarrDon Jazzy & Boy Spyce)
    • Ijo (Laba Laba)

    Crayon Net worth

    The Blowtime Entertainment and Mavin Records Act Crayon has gathered up an estimated net worth of $50,000-$150,000 but he’s not listed in Forbes.

    READ ALSO: Uche Nancy Biography: Husband, Children, Birthday, Net Worth, Daughters, First Child, Wiki Facts, Family Photos, Movies, Productions, Grandchildren

    Social Media

    You can connect with crayon on Instagram @crayonthis

    READ ALSO: Nollywood Star “Peace Onuoha” Biography: Instagram Handle, Net Worth, Pictures, Boyfriend, Movies, Wiki Facts, Parents, Date Of Birth

    0
    0

    Chinenye Nnebe Biography: Sisters, Birthday, Movies, Husband, Net Worth, Son, Twin Sister, Wiki Facts, Boyfriend, Parents

    1 month ago in Biography

     22 total views

    Chinenye Nnebe (born April 5th, 1997) is a popular face in the Nollywood industry.

    She is a talented young lady who has achieved fame as an actress, model, and brand influencer.

    She was introduced into the movie industry at an early age by her mother, Uche Nancy, a renowned costumier, and movie producer.

    She broke into the national limelight after her stellar performance in the movie, Dry.

    CHINENYE NNEBE
    WIKI FACTS & ABOUT DATA
    Full Name: Chinenye Nnebe
    Born: 5th-April-1997
    Birth Place: Asaba
    State Of Origin: Delta State
    Nationality: Nigerian
    Boyfriend • Husband: Somadina Adinma (Rumored)
    Parents: Uche Nancy
    Height: N/A
    Siblings: Sonia Uche, Ijeoma Nnebe, Jesinta Nnebe
    Occupation: Actress • Model
    Net Worth: $100,000-$300,000

    Early Life

    Chinenye Nnebe was born on the 5th of April 1997 in Asaba, Delta State. Her mother is a Nollywood veteran, Uche Nancy, a successful costumier, movie producer, and director.

    Growing up in the South-South part of the country, she started out as a child actor. Under the guidance of her mother, she acted in her first movie at the young age of 3. This was in 2000. She delivered a good performance for a debut and progressed in the industry year in year out.

    Living in Asaba meant that Chinenye Nnebe was well exposed to the Nollywood Industry. And this gave her the opportunity to learn a lot about acting quickly and become a better actress.

    Chinenye Nnebe has a sibling whose name is Sonia Uche, who is also an actress. Her other sisters are Ijeoma Nnebe and Jesinta Nnebe.

    Education

    Chinenye Nnebe completed her elementary education in a private primary school in Asaba before proceeding to St. Augustine College for her secondary school education.

    She graduated from one of the top universities in the South-South region.

    Career

    Since her debut in 2000, Chinenye Nnebe has featured in over a hundred Nollywood movies and has a good work portfolio that includes superstars such as Ken EricsStephanie OkerekeMercy JohnsonNgozi EzeonuNosa RexJim IykeSonia UcheRegina Daniels e.t.c

    She became a household name after she secured a role in the Stephanie Okereke-produced movie – Dry. She earned some nominations for her excellent role interpretation in the movie.

    READ ALSO: Nollywood Star “Peace Onuoha” Biography: Instagram Handle, Net Worth, Pictures, Boyfriend, Movies, Wiki Facts, Parents, Date Of Birth

    Besides acting, she has positioned herself as one of the top young models in Nigeria. She is a very beautiful young lady with dark skin and a slender shape. These features are what brands look out for in models. Thus, Chinenye Nnebe has secured brand ambassadorship deals with the likes of Jenny Glows Beauty ProductsSonia Hair Extensions, and Omah’s World.

    She has also modeled for other Nigerian-based businesses such as Ammievals Gallery and Beauty SolutionChinenye Nnebe is learning the ropes of entrepreneurship as she recently launched her clothing brand – Shop With Chinny.

    Filmography

    • Blessing
    • More Than Sisters
    • Helped
    • The Moving
    • Proof Of Life
    • Best Of Enemies
    • The Lamb
    • Dirty Diamond
    • Fulton Mountain
    • Not My Queen
    • Hot Kingdom

    Social Media

    Chinenye Nnebe is one of the star girls in the Nigerian social media space and has a lot of people following her pages. She currently has over 465k followers on Instagram.

    • Instagram handle – @chinenyennebe
    • Twitter handle – @chinenye_nnebe

    Personal Life

    Chinenye is a very mature and responsible young lady. Her close friends have attested to the fact that she is a goal-driven lady who strives for excellence always. This excellence shows itself in her works.

    She is currently in a romantic relationship with a handsome young man, and their love for each other is waxing strong by the day. Regrettably, his identity is unknown because Chinenye Nnebe doesn’t want her personal affairs to be in the public view. Nevertheless, it is believed that she will let the cat out of the bag after a while.

    She resides with her mother in their beautiful and spacious duplex building in Asaba. She visits Lagos often. Chinenye Nnebe‘s boyfriend, husband, or spouse to be hasn’t been revealed online. Rumor has it that her boyfriend is Somadina Adinma but it has been debunked.

    READ ALSO: Uche Nancy Biography: Husband, Children, Birthday, Net Worth, Daughters, First Child, Wiki Facts, Family Photos, Movies, Productions, Grandchildren

    Net Worth

    Though she is still considered a fast-rising act in the industry, Chinenye Nnebe’s earnings are bound to increase with time. At the moment, she has an estimated net worth of $100,000-$300,000.

    READ ALSO: Nollywood Star “Peace Onuoha” Biography: Instagram Handle, Net Worth, Pictures, Boyfriend, Movies, Wiki Facts, Parents, Date Of Birth

    0
    0

    Sonia Uche Biography: Birthday, Net Worth, Siblings, Husband, Movies, Family, Pictures, Wiki Facts, Instagram, Boyfriend, Parents

    1 month ago in Biography

     32 total views

    Sonia Uche (born May 25) is the first child and daughter of veteran movie producer, actress, and costumier, Uche Nancy, as well as the sister of fellow actress, Chinenye Nnebe.

    She’s indeed a fast-rising Nollywood actress and aspiring filmmaker.

    She hit the spotlight featuring in the movie, My Boss’ Daughter.

    SONIA UCHE
    WIKI FACTS 
    Full Name: Sonia Uche
    Mother: Uche Nancy
    Born: May 25
    Place of Birth: Delta, Nigeria
    State Of Origin: Delta State
    Nationality: Nigerian
    Parents: Uche Nancy
    Height: N/A
    Siblings: Chinenye Nnebe, Ijeoma Nnebe, Jesinta Nnebe
    Boyfriend • Husband: Not Married
    Occupation: Actress • Tv Personality
    Net Worth: $150,000

    Early Life

    Sonia Uche was born on the 25th of May.

    Her exact year of birth, however, is not known.

    She is a native of Delta State, and she grew up there. She is the first of four girls, one of which is Chinenye Nnebe, a famous Nollywood actress. Her other sisters are Ijeoma Nnebe and Jesinta Nnebe.

    Sonia Uche is the daughter of renowned costumier and producer – Uche Nancy. She was raised along with her siblings by their mother.

    Education

    Very little information is known about Sonia Uche’s education. She, however, is a graduate of the University of Abuja, and she graduated in 2018.

      Want Your Biography Online? Click To Chat Us On WhatsApp!!

    Career

    Sonia Uche began acting at quite a young age. However, she revealed that acting wasn’t automatic for her; she went through a series of auditions before eventually landing a “Complicated.”

    She hit major fame when she acted as the lead character in the movie “My Boss’ Daughter.”

    Sonia Uche noted that this movie was particularly challenging as she had to embody the personality of the role she was given entirely to incorporate the essence of her completely.

    She is also known for her role in “Frank’s Wife.” She has over 80 movies to her credit and still counting. She has featured in several movie productions by her mother and starred with her sister in the same film, some of which are “My Boss’ Daughter” and “Vanity.”

    The young actress, Sonia Uche stated that her idol in the movie industry is Genevieve Nnaji. Also, she has featured alongside other stars, including Olu JacobsPatience OzokworPete EdochieMercy Johnson, and Ken Erics.

    Social Media

    Sonia Uche’s official Instagram account is @sonia_uche. Her business page is @soniahair_extensions.

    Personal Life

    Sonia Uche is the daughter of renowned costumier and producer- Uche Nancy.

    She is currently single and not engaged in any relationship. However, when questioned about it, she stated that she wishes to ‘take her time as her parent’s divorce affected her mentally.

    She is not married, has no husband, no boyfriend posted on the media and she has no child too.

    Filmography

    • My Pains (2019)
    • Pain of Love (2020)
    • Betrayed (2020)
    • The Chosen One (2020)
    • Test of Love (2020)
    • Not Just a Ring (2020)
    • Obsession (2021)
    • Vanity (2021)
    • Pride of the Land (2021)
    • Storms in Marriage (2021)
    • Akachi (2021)
    • Naked Lies (2021)
    • War Front (2021)

    Net Worth

    Based on current information about Sonia Uche’s earnings and income, her net worth is estimated at $150,000.

    0
    0

    Uche Nancy Biography: Husband, Children, Birthday, Net Worth, Daughters, First Child, Wiki Facts, Family Photos, Movies, Productions, Grandchildren

    1 month ago in Biography

     19 total views

    Uche Nancy (born 2nd May) is a well-known Nigerian costume designer and film producer from Ufuma in Anambra. She has been in the business for almost ten years, beginning as a costumier before moving into manufacturing.

    Chinenye Nnebe, her daughter, is also a teenage actress, following in her mother’s footsteps. She entered the Nigerian film industry and has appeared in films like Proof of LifeThe SeedGallant BabesFulton Mansion, and others. She also has a daughter named Sonia Uche who is also an actress. Her other daughter’s names are Ijeoma Nnebe and Jesinta Nnebe.

     

     

    She worked as a costumier on World Apart and Girls Cot, winning multiple accolades for her efforts.

    Uche Nancy has also produced over 20 films, including The LambBest of EnemiesDirty DiamondNot My QueenThe ModelsHot KingdomDeep Water, and SonMercy JohnsonAngela OkorieOma NnadiLawrence Onuzulike, and the late Muna Obiekwe are among the actors she has worked with.

    She claimed that she became a producer to allow female performers to showcase their talent in the industry without being harassed by males who are constantly trying to sleep with them. Uche Nancy married at the age of 16 and has four children.

    Uche Nancy has received various honors, including the AMAA and Creative Designer Guild awards.

    UCHE NANCY
    WIKI FACTS & ABOUT DATA
    Real Name: Uche Nancy-Nnnebe
    Stage Name: Uche Nancy
    Born: May 2nd
    Place of Birth: Ufuma, Anambra, Nigeria
    State Of Origin: Anambra State
    Nationality: Nigerian
    Height: 1.65 m
    Parents: N/A
    Siblings: N/A
    Husband • Spouse: Mr. Nnebe
    Boyfriend • Partner: N/A
    Children: Sonia Uche, Ijeoma Nnebe, Jesinta Nnebe, Chinenye Nnebe
    Occupation: Actress • Filmmaker
    Net Worth: US$450,000

     

    0
    0

    Nollywood Star “Peace Onuoha” Biography: Instagram Handle, Net Worth, Pictures, Boyfriend, Movies, Wiki Facts, Parents, Date Of Birth

    1 month ago in Biography

     31 total views

    Peace Lilian Onuoha (born October 9) and is a promising Nollywood Nigerian actress and television personality.

    She debuted in the Nollywood industry with her intriguing roles in movies like Living In Bondage and Tears Of An Orphan.

    She has become one of the most sought-after young actresses in the Nigerian entertainment industry. To show that she is loved, Peace Onuoha‘s massive social media fan base has forced her to become one of the leading social media influencers.

    PEACE LILIAN ONUOHA
    WIKI FACTS & ABOUT DATA
    Full Name: Peace Lilian Onuoha
    Stage Name: Peace Onuoha
    Born: October, 9th (age 20+ years old)
    Place of Birth: Ezuhu Nguru, Mbaise, Imo, Nigeria
    State Of Origin: Imo State
    Nationality: Nigerian
    Height: 167.64 cm
    Parents: N/A
    Siblings: N/A
    Husband • Spouse: Not Married
    Boyfriend • Partner: N/A
    Children: N/A
    Occupation: Actress • TV Personality
    Net Worth: US$250,000

    Early Life & Education

    Peace Onuoha is an Igbo-born actress. She was born on October 9 in the 90s.

    The gifted entity hails from Ezuhu Nguru, Mbaise in Imo State in the southeastern part of Nigeria.

    Peace Onuoha is a graduate of Kogi State University, Anyigba.

    READ ALSO: JOKE SILVER’S BIOGRAPHY, BIRTHDAY, NETWORTH, EDUCATION, HUSBAND, AWARDS, ETC

    Career

    Peace Onuoha has been remarkable in the movies industry so far; with her impressive performance in movies like Pretended Wife and Tears Of An Orphan, she has indeed carved a name for herself.

    The talented actress who is still a rising force in the industry to be reckoned on also starred in Collins Okoro‘s directed movie, “My Money, My Body,” alongside Joyce Kalu.

      Want Your Biography Online? Click To Chat Us On WhatsApp!!

    She has worked with many notable acts in the industry, including the likes of Zubby MichaelChima OnyenekeEbere OkaroJoyce KaluYul EdochieMercy JohnsonOnny MichaelKanayo O. KanayoMaleek MiltonJerry WilliamsBroda ShaggiKen EricsDestiny Etiko, and many others.

    Peace Onuoha is a beautiful, creative, and highly talented Nollywood star gifted at interpreting roles in movies.

    Personal Life

    Peace Onuoha isn’t yet married but believes in a relationship that she doesn’t flaunt on social media. She is teased about dating a handsome young boyfriend whom she doesn’t show off on the media space.

    Peace Onuoha grew up with her parents and siblings.

    Her father is late, and she doesn’t flaunt her mother and siblings on social media.

    READ ALSO: Pete Edochie Biography: Children, Birthday, Sons, Wife, Family, Net Worth, Daughters, Movies, Wiki Facts, Pictures, Grandchildren

    Awards & Nomination

    Peace Onuoha is yet to be recognized by any awarding institution for her remarkable works in the movie industry.

    Filmography

    Peace Onuoha‘s major breakthrough into Nollywood was not until her role in Tears Of An Orphan and can be attributed to her outstanding performance in the movie.

    She has since starred in the following movies so far as an actress.

    • Living In Bondage (Breaking Free)
    • Pretended Wife
    • Tears Of An Orphan
    • The Boy Is Good
    • Balance
    • Peoples Money
    • The Last Oracle
    • After The Burial
    • Ada University
    • The Blind Queen
    • Pick And Drop
    • Tears Of Regret
    • The Eagle
    • A Trip To The East
    • Buried In Three Places
    • Money Vision
    • Black Chambers
    • Revenge
    • Rainbow Ladies
    • De Grand Master
    • Family Settlement
    • Follow Your Heart
    • Price Of Happiness
    • Marlian Prince
    • Echoke
    • Money Palava
    • Paint My World
    • Royal Highness
    • My Lockdown Wife
    • My Wife and Money
    • Helpless Sisters
    • Dis and Dat
    • Symbol of Love
    • Black Morning
    • The Pretended Wife

    Net Worth

    Peace Onuoha is currently waxing more robust day by day in the Nigerian movie industry.

    She is rated as one of the wealthiest and most influential Nollywood actresses with an estimated net worth of about US$250,000.

    READ ALSO: Timaya’s Biography: Songs, Date Of Birth, Wife, Net Worth, Children, Girlfriend, Albums, Instagram, State Of Origin, Parents

    Social Media

    Peace Onuoha is prevalent in social media with large followers.

    Instagram @ peaceonuoha_

    Photo Gallery

    0
    0

    Comprehensive Guide On How To Hatch Snail Eggs From Start To Finish

    1 month ago in Skill Acquisition

     19 total views

    Snail Reproduction process – (How do snails reproduce?)

    Giant African Land Snails (GALS) are hermaphrodites, meaning they have both male and female reproductive organs.

    Even though snails are hermaphrodites, they still need to mate with each other to produce snail eggs.

    The mating process is usually like a fight.

    You will think they would swallow themselves in the process.

    After mating, each snail will lay its eggs in clutches and bury them in the dirt. 

    Giant African land snails can lay between 40 – 100 snails per laying season.

    Did you know that snails are very intelligent?

    They don’t just lay their eggs in the dirt, they lay the eggs in the part of the soil that is suitable enough to incubate the eggs.

    But unfortunately, 

    the snails are in captivity, so the farm manager’s activities within the pen tend to disrupt the perfect condition of the snail eggs.

    Interestingly, some of the snails are also very s****d. 

    They just lay a clutch of eggs on the soil without covering it at all.

    So, this is why it is important for you to take out the eggs and incubate them in a separate snail pen.

    Incubating the snail eggs by yourself increases your chances of having more hatched snail eggs.

    READ ALSO: A Complete Guide On How To Incubate Chicken Eggs

    Two Giant African Land Snails Mating:

    Just in case you are yet to do so, you should read this article “How to start a snail farming business” for more insight about snail farming.

    How to hatch snail eggs.

    The process of hatching snail eggs is a very simple one.

    1. First, collect the eggs from the snail pen
    2. Prepare an incubator for hatching the snail eggs.
    3. Incubate the eggs in the snail egg incubator
    4. Track the hatching progress of the snail eggs
    5. Take care of the snail eggs while they are incubating.
    6. Collect the new snail hatchlings and keep them in a new pen.

    Step 1: Collect the eggs from the snail pen

    When your snails start laying eggs, you need to check the pen every day to pick out the eggs.

    To do this, you need a hoe to till the soil gently and pick out the snail eggs.

    Please note:

    Don’t ever use your hand to pick up the snail’s eggs.

    When you pick up snail eggs with your bare hands, you reduce the chances of the eggs hatching.

    Use a plastic spoon instead for picking the snail eggs and use a plastic tray to collect the eggs.

    After collecting all the eggs, move to the next step to incubate the snail eggs.

    Once your snails start laying eggs, you have to come back weekly or bi-weekly to check for new eggs.

    Step 2: Prepare an incubator for hatching the snail eggs.

    The incubator or hatchery for snail eggs is not a giant electrical device like that of poultry eggs.

    It is just a mixture of soil with a little bit of water in a Tupperware tub or in one of your snail pens in a commercial snail farming setup.

    If you wish to have an exact proportion of water you need to mix with the soil, you should consider reading this research about the effect of water on incubating snail eggs.

    The researcher concluded that “Rural snail breeders are assured of high snail egg hatchability with the application of 15% water content (gram water per gram dry soil, weight per weight) during incubation of snail eggs buried in airtight containers to reduce evaporation.”

    After getting the correct mixture of soil and water, choose how you want to incubate the snail eggs.

    For those who keep snails as a pet, using Tupperware with air holes in the lid is okay.

    Snail eggs incubation using a Tupperware

    For commercial snail farming, fill your pen with soil to a depth of 15 – 20cm from the floor.

    After that:

    Use a hand fork or trowel to loosen the soil.

    You can also use your hand to loosen the soil since it’s not really thick.

    Loosening the soil before incubating the snail eggs makes it easy for snail hatchlings to emerge from the soil.

    If you have followed the process to this point, it means you are done preparing the snail eggs incubator.

    The next step is to introduce the snail eggs into the incubator.

    Step 3: Incubate the eggs in the snail egg incubator

    After preparing the snail eggs incubator, it’s time to introduce the eggs.

    Using a hand trowel or your hand, open up the soil to about 2 inches deep.

    The diameter of the hole should be wide enough to contain your snails.

    Next:

    Use the plastic spoon to scoop the snail eggs into the hole in the incubation pen.

    After that, cover the snail eggs loosely with about 2 inches of soil.

    At this point, you are done incubating the snail eggs. Yippie!!

    Do you remember I promised to tell you how to keep track of the hatching process?

    Step 4: Track the hatching progress of the snail eggs

    Tracking the hatching progress of snail eggs is very easy too.

    Here’s what you need to do:

    After burying the snail eggs in the soil, get a sheet of paper and write out the date and number of eggs in the hole.

    This will help you know when you started incubation and when you will stop.

    The incubation period is between 21 – 35 days.

    It means that the snail eggs will begin to hatch somewhere around the 21st day after incubation.

    Naturally, when snail eggs hatch, they crawl out of the thin layer of soil covering them to the surface soil.

    However, not all of them tend to come out of the soil.

    So, you need to check after 21 days to get them out.

    Using a plastic spoon, gently open the soil and pick out the hatched snails onto a plastic tray.

    Count and record the number of hatched snails and the number of eggs left.

    Make sure the sum of these numbers corresponds to the total number of snail eggs you put there.

    Baby snails emerging from snail eggs:

    When you are done picking the hatched snails cover up the remaining eggs for another 14 days.

    After 14 days have gone by, come back again and pick out the hatched snails.

    Any remaining eggs in the snail incubation pen after that day should just be discarded.

    Following the steps under this subheading will help you know the number of new snails you have on your snail farm.

    This number will help you know how many snails you are expecting to have after the farming period.

    It will also help you to project the amount of feed you need to get.

    Most importantly, it will help you forecast and calculate your revenue accurately.

    Step 5: Take care of the snail eggs while they are incubating.

    We are almost at the end of this guide, I hope you have learned something so far?

    I have mentioned some tips on how to take care of snail eggs earlier in this article.

    I will go ahead and repeat them here. Here are the ways

    • Don’t pick up the snail eggs with your bare hands
    • When digging for snail eggs, do so gently so that you don’t crush the eggs.
    • Check the snail pen every week or bi-weekly to pick up new eggs.
    • To maintain the moisture content of the soil, especially in the northern area, use a hand sprayer to spray water lightly on the soil.
    • Do not waterlog the soil so that the eggs can hatch. When the water becomes too much in the soil, it destroys the hatching process.
    • Ensure that the incubator has a consistent humidity and temperature all through the incubation period.
    • Remember you only need to buy the eggs 2 inches deep so that the weight of the soil will not kill the young hatchlings.
    • Use only a plastic spoon to open the soil and remove all the hatched snails and then cover the remaining ones.

    Step 6: Collect the new snail hatchlings and keep them in a new pen.

    After you have finished hatching the snail eggs, collect the baby snails into a new pen.

    Yet again, don’t pick up the baby snails with your bare hand.

    You might crush their young and very soft shells.

    The best snail farming equipment for picking up baby snails is the plastic spoon.

    When you are done transferring the baby snails to a new pen make sure you provide them with some snail food.

    The most essential food for a baby snail is calcium because it will help in strong shell formation.

    I hope this article was detailed enough for you?

    Watch the video at the bottom of this page to see every step in this article in action.

    Don’t forget to hit the social media icons on your screen to share this article with others.

    Best regards.

    In Conclusion

    Hatching snail eggs can be as easy as anything else.

    How you carry out the process will determine whether you will get a lot of baby snails or only a few.

    Besides getting a lot of snail hatchlings, one thing that is more important is how you care for the baby snails.

    If you handle them carelessly, you might lose your precious snails because they are very delicate at a young age.

    Use the information in this guide to properly hatch your snails and take care of them until maturity.

    0
    0

    A Complete Guide On How To Incubate Chicken Eggs

    1 month ago in Skill Acquisition

     16 total views

    Hatching season is here, and that means incubating. It doesn’t matter if the chicken or the egg came first, because you’ll be handling plenty of both!

    A chicken will hatch from its egg after only 21 days, and it is crucial to properly care for them during those 3 weeks.

    While mother hens are good at taking care of their chicks, they are busy and can easily get distracted, accidentally hurting their eggs. When humans intervene, we actually increase the success rate and yield of healthy baby chicks.

    If you have never incubated eggs before, or just need a refresher course, we will break down everything you need to know on how to hatch chicks safely and smoothly.

    READ ALSO: Comprehensive Guide On How To Hatch Snail Eggs From Start To Finish

    RAISE HEALTHY CHICKENS

    Healthy chicks can only come from healthy moms. Make sure your chickens have plenty of room outside and are living a stress-free lifestyle. Stressed-out chickens are less likely to produce eggs.

    Remember, every chicken needs 1 square metre inside and 3 square metres outside. Cramped coops will not lead to egg-lined shelves.

    Fill in any gaps in their diet with whole ingredient supplements. The 3kg Eton TSF Feeder is a great option for hanging your feeder and adding nutritional supplements. You can’t have healthy chicks without healthy hens!

    MAKE SURE YOU START WITH FERTILE EGGS

    Without a rooster in your coop, your eggs will not be fertilized, and you will not have any hatching eggs. If you do have a rooster and are still not hatching, your man is past his prime, and you’ll need a new rooster to take over.

    If you lack a rooster, ask a local breeder or another farmer for some fertile eggs before you get started, so you do not waste your time with incubation.

    It is possible to receive eggs in the post, but this is a risky move that often results in half your shipment of eggs getting smashed. You must also sanitize any foreign eggs of any bacteria they may come with or pick up on their journey.

    WHO WILL DO THE WORK?

    The very first step is deciding if you will do the work, or let mother nature take over. If you truly want to go with a hands-off approach, your broody hen will do the work of an incubator for you.

    She will sit on the egg for 21 days of incubation until, hopefully, the baby bird properly hatches. But be aware that there is a risk of the chicken not surviving. Plus, a bird that is raised by its mother will be more feisty around humans and fiercely protected by an angry hen.

    Be sure your poultry always has plenty of access to water by installing a Poultry Font Drinker which will slowly release water all day. A healthy hen has plenty of water and will lay better eggs when fully hydrated. She will also be calmer when water is close while incubating.

    If you want to control all parameters, incubate your own eggs and hatch friendly chicks!

    SET UP YOUR INCUBATOR

    You can buy a cheap incubator for as little as £50, although they run into the thousands for high-end industrial-level incubators.

    It is also possible to DIY your own. However, you must make sure your parameters are exactly right and consistent to ensure success.

    Whether you buy the most expensive incubator on the market, or you just jerry-rig your own out of cardboard, they all need to control these three basic aspects:

    TEMPERATURE

    The chicken eggs must be kept at a temperature of exactly 37.5C (99.5F) at all times for the entire incubation period. Even a single degree higher or lower risks losing the egg. If this precise temperature in the incubator is lost for only 2 hours, the embryo will be terminated.

    HUMIDITY

    The humidity changes during the incubation period. From days 1-18, the eggs should be in an environment between 40-50% humidity. For the final 3 days of incubation, the humidity needs to be raised to a max of 75% to alert the egg that hatching will be happening soon.

    VENTILATION

    The reason eggs are so sensitive to temperature and humidity is that, believe it or not, shells are porous. The shells even allow oxygen in and out to keep the chick alive. Keep your incubator well ventilated and allow for moving air to pass through. While it is more difficult to hold a consistent temperature and humidity in an open system, this is the only way to let the birds hatch.

    If you plan on creating your own incubator, invest in an accurate thermometer and hygrometer (which measures humidity) to monitor the conditions daily.

    Mother nature does not provide such exact parameters when it comes to temperature and humidity, so you will have a higher yield from your self-incubated eggs than you would find in the coop.

    ROTATE THE EGGS

    Mother hens have an innate instinct to fuss around with their eggs and rotate them every so often. The eggs will only hatch if rotated correctly and placed in the right orientation. Always start with the larger end of the egg facing up. Some fancy incubators have built-in turning mechanisms that carefully rotate the eggs an exact number of times a day with minor interruption.

    Should you need to practice hand turning, follow these steps carefully and delicately in your incubator.

    • Turn the eggs an odd number of times a day. Usually, three to five times is enough. An odd number of turns helps distribute the fluids in the eggs evenly, so they do not drown. An improperly turned egg is also at a higher risk for birth defects as it could stick to the inside of the shell.
    • Place two different marks on the top and bottom of the egg to remember their placement. Each night the egg needs to land in a new position, so keep track of the orientation every day.
    • Keep turning every single day until day 18. After that, you can leave them alone as you enter lockdown.

    LOCKDOWN PERIOD

    It is nearly game time now. The days of incubation from 18-21 are known as ‘lockdown’, meaning hatching is imminent. Make sure your rotating mechanism is turned off and humidity is cranked up to 75%.

    Now leave your incubator well enough alone. If you’ve followed all the instructions correctly, the eggs will start to wobble and move on their own. The chicks will peck a small hole in the shell and start poking out their heads to greet you.

    It should only take a few minutes for the hatching process to complete and your incubator to be full of newborn baby birds!

    HATCHING EGGS COMPLETE

    Let the chicks dry off and fluff up before moving them out of the incubator and into a brooder.
    The baby birds will live on the nutrients from the shell for 3 days but then require fresh food and water. Give them very small bowls of water and food, as clumsy babies have been known to drown in large water bowls.

    Make sure they are well-fed and clean up their droppings every day until they are large enough to leave the brooder. In a few weeks, the birds will be able to join the coop.

    The teenage birds will love this top-notch Ascot Outdoor Feeder perfect for both free-range chickens and those in a small coop. It is a low stand feeder that will attract smaller birds and lower the chances of aggressive interactions with larger birds.

    IN CONCLUSION

    You can read all day about the tribulations of the hatching process, but there is much to be learned from trial and error. Follow these steps and get proper equipment from Dalton Engineering to streamline the process.

    If you want perfect hatchlings every time, check out all the equipment for egg care from Dalton and let the experts do the hard work for you! You can incubate eggs like a pro and hatch happy and healthy baby chicks in just 21 days and continue to grow your coop into a full-grown flock.

    Explore all of our poultry farming equipment and trust us to outfit your entire farm with everything you could need, from feeders to consumables, to hardware.

    0
    0

    10 Potential Ways Of Curing And Preventing Athlete’s Foot

    1 month ago in Health and Nutritional Tips

     14 total views

    • Keep your feet clean and dry: Wash your feet twice a day and gently towel-dry between the toes.
    • Use an antifungal product: After washing and drying your feet, apply an antifungal product. The antifungal terbinafine (Lamisil AT) has been shown to be very effective. Another option is clotrimazole (Lotrimin AF). You may need to experiment to find the product and formulation — ointment, gel, cream, lotion, powder or spray — that work for you. Apply the product to the affected skin as directed — usually twice a day until a week after the rash clears up. It might take 2 to 4 weeks to see results. If the condition comes back, you might need to start applying the product again.
    • Change socks regularly: Change your socks at least once a day — more often if your feet get really sweaty.
    • Wear light, well-ventilated footwear: Avoid shoes made of synthetic material, such as vinyl or rubber. Wear sandals when possible to let your feet air out.
    • Alternate pairs of shoes: Use different shoes from day to day. This gives your shoes time to dry after each use.
    • In cases when the athlete’s foot are severe, try to use razor blade and gently slice out the upper layers before soaking and scrubing against a rough surface to enable the body cells regenerate the lost flesh that has been sliced out. This regeneration process usually takes a while (approximately 2-3 months) afer the slicing has been done.
    • Protect your feet in public places: Wear waterproof sandals or shoes around public pools, showers and lockers rooms.
    • Try not to scratch the rash: You can try soothing your itchy feet by soaking them in cool water.
    • Don’t share shoes: Sharing risks spreading a fungal infection.
    • Soak your legs in detergent water for like 5-10 minutes and scrub the affected areas against a rough surface during, before or after bathing atleast three times daily until the marks gradually disappears.
    0
    0

    26 Amazing Health Benefits Of Pineapple

    1 month ago in Health and Nutritional Tips

     18 total views

    1. Good for your Eyes:

    Regular consumption of pineapple can reduce your risk of macular degeneration which is diseases that affects the eye as you get older. However, this healthy fruit has a high source of vitamin C and several antioxidants that can aid in good vision.

    READ ALSO: EIGHT HEALTH BENEFITS OF MANGO LEAVES

    2. Reduce Symptoms of Arthritis:

    Arthritis involves severe pain in the joints which is primarily caused due to inflammation. Pineapple contains bromelain which is said to have a major anti-inflammatory property and all you need to do is to make pineapple juice and drink it. This will ease joint pain and prevent you from arthritis.

    3. Prevents Hypertension:

    If you are suffering from hypertension, then make it a point to start eating pineapples regularly as this fruit has high amounts of potassium and lower amounts of sodium that can maintain blood pressure and make you feel relaxed most often. This is the best natural way you can control your blood pressure level.

    4. Reduces Risk of Blood Clots:

    Bromelain being the major substance in pineapples will reduce your risks of blood clots. Thus, you need to make this healthy fruit your good time pass snack. It can benefit your health in many possible ways and so make it a point to consume this fruit very often.

    5. Contain Antioxidants:

    Pineapples are rich in nutrients and antioxidants that have the ability to prevent diseases that your body is prone to. Your body is prone to a lot of diseases as you age and as a result, this can cause chronic inflammation and weaken your immune system. Pineapple has antioxidants that can boost your immune system and protect you from many diseases.

    6. Prevents Nausea:

    Pineapple contains digestive enzymes that can reduce nausea. This is because of its bromelain enzyme that will take away nausea, morning sickness and can be very beneficial especially for pregnant women. How difficult can it be for you to sip a glass of pineapple juice? What are you waiting for? Go grab a glass of pineapple juice and stay healthy.

    7. Natural Energiser:

    Pineapple contains valine and leucine which are two substances that are very important for the growth and repair of muscle tissue. Drinking one glass of pineapple juice can help you overcome fatigue and boosts your stamina to keep you running the whole day. The best thing about this fruit is that it will keep you hydrated the entire day and provide all the energy you would need to run yourself.

    8. Stress Buster:

    Pineapple has serotonin which is a natural stress buster that keeps your hormones and nerves relaxed. All you need to do is to eat or drink some pineapple juice and this will keep you healthy. When you are stressed you can end up inviting a lot of health problems. Thus, you can beat that stress by drinking just one glass of pineapple juice.

    9. Pineapple Benefits for Skin

    Pineapple is good for your overall health and similarly, it is also good for your skin and hair too. If you are suffering from acne, skin rashes or skin damage, then you need to consume this healthy fruit which will rejuvenate your skin and make it look clean and fresh. Here are some health benefits of consuming pineapple for the skin.

    10. Treats Acne:

    Pineapple juice has loads of vitamin C and antioxidants that can treat acne, sun damage and uneven skin toning. Bromelain is a content that can fight against inflammation and swelling in your joints. If you would want to look fair, then all you need to do is to consume 1 glass of pineapple juice that will help you beat all those scars caused by acne. It will also keep your skin hydrated and make your skin clear.

    11. Anti-Ageing Properties:

    The older you get your skin begins to lose its glow and you will begin to develop wrinkles. However, pineapple can make you look younger and delay cells from dying. Its rich source of antioxidants and vitamin C is said to boost your immunity and keep you energetic. The best thing about consuming pineapple juice is that it will make your skin smooth and add that extra layer of youngness over it. You can also add a few drops of lemon to it and this will multiply your benefits of anti-ageing.

    12. Prevents Pimples:

    Drinking pineapple juice means that you are in taking Alpha-hydroxy acid which is the main substance that delays the death of cells, thus aiding in anti-ageing capabilities. All you need to do is to apply some pineapple juice over your face and let it dry for 5 minutes. Once this is done, you can rinse it off with some water and this will flush away the toxins from your face, thus making your skin look vibrant and clean.

    13. Treats Black Spots:

    Pineapple can reduce black spots on your face and in order to achieve this, you need to rub some slices of pineapple over your black spots. You need to keep it on your face for 5 minutes and wait till it could dry. Once this is done you can wash it away with some water and this will nourish your skin and make it look young.

    14. Pineapple Benefits for Hair

    Pineapple is said to be rich in vitamin C and can aid in hair growth. Its rich source of antioxidants has the ability to prevent you from any sort of disease that you may be prone to. Vitamin C gives your hair an extra layer of silkiness and makes it look thick. Here are some benefits of eating pineapple for your hair.

    15. Softer and Shinier Hair:

    Pineapple contains vitamin C that is responsible for softer and shinier hair. Bromelain enzyme is a substance found in pineapple that contains anti-inflammatory properties that can prevent acne, dermatitis, psoriasis and eczema. It’s a high source of antioxidants not only benefits your skin, hair and health but also boosts your immunity.

    16. Generates Thick Hair:

    Pineapple has hair thickening properties that will make your hair strong and avoid hair fall. The enzymes present in this fruit has vital nutrients that can enrich your hair follicles. This will improve the thickness and elasticity of your hair.

    17. Cures Inflammation in Scalp:

    If you are suffering from severe itching all you need to do is t try some pineapple and this will give you instant relief. This healthy fruit is said to ease inflammation in your scalp and prevents unwanted hair fall. So, make it a point to drink pineapple juice and get rid of hair fall.

    18. Loaded with Nutrients:

    Even though pineapples are not calorie-dense, they are packed with several nutrients that are necessary for the body. About 165 grams of pineapple is only 82.5 calories but contains 1.7 grams of fat, 1 gram of protein, 21.6 grams of carbohydrates, and 2.3 grams of fibre. It also contains 131% of the Regular Dietary Intake (RDI) of Vitamin C, 76% of the RDI of manganese, 9% of the RDI of Vitamin B6, Copper, and Thiamin, 7% of the RDI of folate, 5% of the RDI of potassium and Magnesium, 4% of the RDI of Niacin and Pantothenic acid, as well as 3% of RDI of Riboflavin and Iron.

    19. Speeds Up Muscle Recovery:

    Pineapples contain a compound known as bromelain and according to studies, it has demonstrated significant positive effects on muscle fatigue due to exercise. It also protects from muscle damage and inflammation and is, therefore, a great way to promote muscle recovery after a workout.

    20. Helps Recover from Surgery:

    Similarly, the bromelain in pineapple has also been seen to be helpful to the body when it is recovering from surgical intervention. In fact, it has been discovered that bromelain is as potent as any other anti-inflammatory drug without the propensity for side effects. Moreover, bromelain has already been approved in some European countries for both internal and topical use on surgical wounds to facilitate faster healing.

    21. Promotes Weight Loss:

    A recent study on rats has proven that pineapple does have an anti-obesity effect. According to the results of this study, raw pineapple juice has been seen to prevent the deposition of fat in rats that were put on a specific diet. While the effects on humans have not yet been ratified, there is a good chance that raw pineapple juice may have a similar effect on humans as well.

    22. Treats Cold and Cough:

    If you are suffering from a bad cold, then you need to make it a point to eat pineapple. This is because this healthy fruit contains bromelain which is an enzyme that has inflammatory properties that can fight infections and kill bacteria. Eating it regularly can prevent you from a cough and cold. Well isn’t this a tastier option for you to get rid of that horrible cold and cough?

    23. Strengthen Bones:

    Pineapple is rich in manganese that helps in strengthening your bones. All you need to do is to add this fruit to your everyday diet and this will help you maintain a strong body and keep your bones strong and healthy. Manganese maintains good bone strength and when it is combined with zinc, copper and calcium this substance can be super healthy. Thus, pineapple has all the components and this is why this fruit can aid in stronger bones.

    24. Good For Teeth:

    Eating pineapple is said to strengthen your gums and keep your health strong. Your teeth and bones are made up of calcium and pineapple do have good content. It also does have manganese that also helps in strengthening bones and teeth. Just drink pineapple juice every day and stay healthy.

    25. Prevents Cancer:

    A pineapple a day can keep cancer away and this is true in the case of this healthy fruit. All you need to do drink pineapple juice every day and reap the benefits of it. The best thing about this fruit is that it slows down cell damage and makes you look younger. This fruit has loads of antioxidants in it that can protect you from a wide range of diseases and fights some dangerous organisms that are may affect you.

    26. Aids In Digestion:

    Gulping down all of those tasty dishes can sometimes make you feel heavy and lead to indigestion. All you need to do is to drink some pineapple juice or eat it and you get rid of that stomach ache. Pineapple has a rich source of bromelain, dietary fibre and vitamin C that helps in good digestion.

    0
    0

    Comprehensive Guidelines For Producing Soda Soap

    1 month ago in Innovations

     19 total views

    Items needed for the job include:
    •Caustic soda (1kg)
    •Red Palm oil (6 litres)
    •Water (3 litres)
    •Robin blue for whiter (optional)
    •Colour (optional)
    •Perfume (optional)

    Procedures to be adopted include:

    °Dissolve the caustic soda with 3 litres of water and soak it for 1 day.
    °Bleach the palm oil (fry the palm oil on fire) until it turns white use paper to check if it is done.
    °Put the pot down from the fire and allow it to cool.
    °Now pour the caustic soda solution into the warm bleached palm oil and stir immediately and continuously until it becomes smooth.
    °Robin blue can also be added to make it whiter.
    °Add your colour and perfume as you desired.
    °Now your soda soap is ready to pour into a cups or moulds.
    °After pouring..allow them to set for some hours.
    Please kindly note:
    That when you are adding colour to your sodà soap, no need of putting Robin blue again.
    0
    0

    5 Potential Ways Of Maintaining Law And Order In The Community And Society At Large

    1 month ago in Morals

     17 total views

    To maintain law and order, there must be some rules that should be followed. Whoever will break any of these rules is therefore required to get their reward. By doing this, we will maintain law and order even in our society. However, there are a lot of ways you can improve law and order. First, you need to ensure that in our society we have trained people to maintain law and order.

    It is recommended that we train these people before enforcement. The law enforcement department, therefore, enforces people to follow the laws that are made by these departments. However, it is advisable to note that punishment is not the only way to bring offenders into the correct path. That is why a lot of observation should be considered before you decide in any decision. The following are some of the ways to improve law and order.

    Below are Five Potential ways of maintaining law and order in a community:

    Serve on the citizen advisory board

    You will realize that most police departments have these citizen boards. They help in advising and implementing some of the strategies that will help in reducing disorder and crime. Therefore, it is important to make sure that you participate in these advisory boards to improve law and order in your society.

    Be your neighbor’s keeper

    You can also help the police in maintaining law and order in your region. You can, therefore, decide to form groups that you will be watching each other. You need to organize how you will maintain law and order in your various groups. Employ some of the methods that you will be using to communicate with your neighbors and policemen.

    Volunteer

    This is one of the best ways to improve law and order in our society. As a citizen, you may decide to volunteer and decide to support officers. It is important to know that there are roles for volunteers. Patrolling, conducting some clerical tasks, rescuing activities, enforcement, and helping with equipment and property inventories are some of the activities or roles for volunteers. By doing this you will improve law and order.

    Complain or compliment

    This is another way you can improve or maintain law and order. Therefore, if you have a good interaction with the police officers, you can share any complaint with the necessary officers. Also, you may have a question that you need to know more about. Do not hesitate to ask. Make sure that you ask and get immediate solutions to your questions. Also, if you have realized or noted some criminal cases, make sure that you report them.

    Participate in community meetings

    It is essential to understand that community meetings are one of the easiest ways you can improve law and order. In these meetings, you need to discuss some of the important ways you can employ in your society. Make sure that you have your leaders and also ensure that your society follows some of the rules that you create. Also, it is the responsibility of the residents to communicate with the police representatives to help them solve some of the community cases.

    0
    0

    Potential Guidelines For Making Liquid Soap

    1 month ago in Innovations

     19 total views

    Liquid soap is very popular all over the world. It is preferably used to wash clothes and kitchen utensils, but it is also widely used to wash hands and the body. Would you like to learn how to make liquid soap at home? Have you been looking for homemade soap recipes with no success? You have landed on the right page. This helpful guide on how to make homemade soap will help you in your soap making endeavour.

    Below are potential guidelines for making liquid soap:

    0
    0

    Captivating Health Benefits Of Unriped Plantain Flour

    1 month ago in Health and Nutritional Tips

     16 total views

    Plantain is a staple food consumed by many because of its rich health benefits.
    Plantain flour is made from dried green or unripe plantain slices. It is consumed as an alternative to regular flour.

    Plantain flour has all the health benefits found in unripe plantain intact. In fact, it is a smart way of preserving it’s rich health content, since if left alone, would ripen. Thereby having its original content converted to carbohydrate variants.

    READ ALSO: EIGHT HEALTH BENEFITS OF MANGO LEAVES

    Unripe plantain flour is highly recommended not only for people with diabetes, but all who desire to maintain good health, because it is gluten free, rich in potassium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, vitamin A and B. It is low in calories too.

    READ ALSO: 15 HEALTH BANEFITS OF BANANA

    There are lots of plantain flour brands in Nigeria. One of such is Laba unripe plantain flour, made by Laba foods.
    Now, if you’re looking to buy good quality plantain flour, you should go for Laba plantain flour.
    It is made from good quality unripe plantains, and can be found in major stores and supermarkets in Nigeria.

    READ ALSO: 8 HEALTH BENEFITS OF PAPAYA

    So if you want to switch from regular-type flour, Laba unripe plantain flour is the recommended alternative.
    Eat healthy foods, eat Laba foods always.

    READ ALSO: 7 HEALTH BENEFITS OF AVOCADO PEAR

    0
    0

    8 Amazing Health Benefits Of Unriped Plantain

    1 month ago in Health and Nutritional Tips

     22 total views

    Plantain, otherwise known as cooking banana, is a common food in Western African countries like Nigeria, Cameroon, and Ghana. While much emphasis is placed on the health benefits of ripe plantain, little is known about unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca), which equally has immense health benefits. 

    Unripe plantain is regarded as green plantain by some and serves as a source of vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, and antioxidants.

    Apart from the enjoyment, you will derive from eating unripe plantain as a meal, it equally comes with a good number of health benefits, which we will be exploring below.

    1. It helps to manage diabetes
    The level of sugar available in an unripe plantain is very low when compared to that of a ripe plantain, which therefore makes it an ideal meal for diabetics.

    READ ALSO: 8 HEALTH BENEFITS OF PAPAYA

    2. It helps to boost libido
    This is another immense benefit of an unripe plantain. You can improve your s*xual life simply by eating unripe plantains regularly. The vitamins and nutrients contained in unripe plantains help to increase your s*xual desire and overall performance during intimacy. 

    3. Good for pregnant women
    Unripe plantains are very rich in calcium, vitamin C, vitamin B-6, phosphorus, and magnesium. All these help the unborn child by ensuring proper growth and development of the baby while inside the stomach.

    READ ALSO: 7 HEALTH BENEFITS OF AVOCADO PEAR

    4. Helps in weight loss
    If you are thinking about losing weight, then you may need to try out constant eating of unripe plantains before hitting the gym or opting for surgery. Unripe plantains are loaded with high resistant starch content, which greatly helps in weight loss.

    READ ALSO: EIGHT HEALTH BENEFITS OF MANGO LEAVES

    5. It helps to prevent constipation

    Quite a number of people find it difficult to pass stool (feces) due to piles. But with regular intake of unripe plantain, which is very rich in fiber, it will help to prevent constipation and make the passing of stool simple and easy.

    6. It helps in the building of stronger bones and teeth
    If you are intentional about making it stronger, then regular intake of unripe plantains may just be the answer to your problem. Unripe plantains are very rich in calcium, which helps to facilitate the building of stronger bones and teeth.

    7. It is heart friendly
    Unripe plantain is heart-friendly due to its richness in potassium, which helps to prevent heart attack and hypertension by controlling the heart rate in our body. 

    Unripe plantains can be enjoyed in different ways. It can be prepared as a porridge, boiled with vegetable sauce, fried as chips, and so on.

    READ ALSO: 15 HEALTH BANEFITS OF BANANA

    8. It helps cure stomach ulcers

    One of the phytochemical properties contained in unripe plantain is leucocyanidin which helps to heal stomach ulcers. Apart from this, it also helps in protecting the walls of the intestine.

    0
    0

    15 Excellent Health Benefits Of Bananas

    1 month ago in Health and Nutritional Tips

     24 total views

    1: It helps to whiten the teeth

    Banana peel is very beneficial to whiten teeth. Gently rubbing the inside part of the banana peel for about 2 minutes will give the desired effect of white and bright teeth.

    READ ALSO: 8 HEALTH BENEFITS OF PAPAYA

    2. Pectin in Bananas helps to detoxify the body

    Bananas are rich in pectin. Research has shown that pectin can limit the amount of fat your cells can absorb. Pectin can also help regulate blood sugar levels. 

    3. Bananas helps the body burn fat

    Bananas contain 12 mg of choline. Choline is a fat-blasting B vitamin that acts directly on the genes that cause fat storage in the abdomen. This compound in bananas helps the body to burn fat easily with exercise.

    4. Bananas helps keep diseases at bay

    Bananas are rich in three different types of carotenoids, namely beta-carotene, provitamin A carotenoids and alpha-carotene. Our body has the ability to convert these to Vitamin A. According to studies, foods containing high levels of carotenoids have been shown to protect against chronic diseases like diabetes, certain cardiovascular diseases and cancer.

    READ ALSO: 7 HEALTH BENEFITS OF AVOCADO PEAR

    5: It improves digestion

    Banana is rich in soluble and insoluble fibres that play an essential role in digestive health. Soluble fibres help to control blood sugar levels and may reduce cholesterol levels. Insoluble fibres may soften your stool and regulate intestinal movements. 

    Banana deals with your hyperacidity symptoms by protecting the stomach lining from ulcers. It also helps to guard the stomach against unfriendly bacteria that are responsible for causing gastrointestinal disturbances.

    READ ALSO: EIGHT HEALTH BENEFITS OF MANGO LEAVES

    6: Helps to improve heart health

    Banana is essential for your heart health. It is rich in potassium, minerals, and electrolytes that help to maintain your heart health. Banana has high potassium and low sodium content. Hence, it may also help to protect your cardiovascular system against high blood pressure.  

    A medium-sized banana will provide around 320-400 mg of potassium, which meets about 10% of your daily potassium needs.

    READ ALSO: 5 HEALTH BENEFITS OF MANGO FRUITS

    7: Helps to build lean muscles

    If you feel recurrent soreness of muscles after a workout, you may lack magnesium in your body. A magnesium-rich banana may help with muscle contraction and relaxation that increase lean muscle mass.  

    8: Supports bone health

    Though bananas are not high in calcium, they can help to maintain your bone health. How? Banana contains a prebi*tic named- Fructooligosaccharides. Fructooligosaccharides help to enhance the ability of the body to absorb calcium. Hence, this prebi*tic may help to improve the bone health of your body.  

    9: Helps muscles to recover after exercise

    Banana is rich in potassium which helps to recover your muscles after a workout. Consuming bananas after exercise may help to strengthen your muscles and it allows you to work out more.

    10: Helps to reduce bloating

    Bloating makes you feel uneasy. Banana may help you in this situation, fight back against gas and water retention. It might increase the bloat-fighting bacteria in the stomach. Also, it might help to diminish the retained fluid in the body as it is rich in potassium. 

    11: Helps to make you feel fuller 

    Unripe bananas make you feel fuller for a longer time. It is rich in a specific starch called resistant starch. This starch helps to resist the digestion process. It helps to suppress your hunger and make you feel fuller. Since the raw bananas are bitter, you can make a smoothie with other fruits and vegetables. 

    12: May improve kidney health 

    Banana is rich in potassium which helps to keep your kidneys healthy and clean. Some studies suggest that those who eat bananas 4–6 times a week are almost 50% less likely to develop kidney disease than those who don’t eat this fruit.

    13: Helps to fight against anaemia 

    Due to the high folate content in the bananas, they are healthy for those suffering from anaemia. Anaemia-induced fatigue and paleness may reduce by the daily consumption of bananas. 

    14: It helps with a hangover 

    A hangover is the worst thing after a rocking party. Banana may help you in this condition. Consuming a banana smoothie made of milk/curd or banana with some milk and a few strawberries may help to provide relief from the hangover.

    15: It Supports eye health:

    Banana is rich in vitamin A, vitamin E, lutein and antioxidants that help keep your vision healthy. Lutein is a nutrient that may help to reduce the risk for macular degeneration.

    0
    0

    11 Great Ways To Overcome Shyness Permanently

    1 month ago in Self Development Tips

     15 total views

    Your feelings of shyness don’t need to stick with you permanently. Practicing these eleven strategies can help you overcome your shyness. Plus, putting these tactics in place will boost your confidence in social interactions.

    1. Name it

    What does your shyness do to you in social settings? Does your body language change? Do you struggle to make eye contact with people? Identifying when you start to feel shy can help you learn from it in the future.

    2. Understand why you’re shy

    If you know why you’re shy in social situations, you can look for ways to break the cycle. For example, it might be due to a lack of confidence or a bad experience that looms larger in your memory than it needs to.

    Maybe someone in your past made a big deal about your reserve and you feel it as a source of shame or embarrassment. Maybe it became part of how you think about yourself. Or, maybe you’ll discover that you really do prefer to be yourself with 1-2 good friends rather than surrounded by acquaintances and strangers.

    If you feel like there is persistent self-doubt, low sense of self-worth, or anxiety that is driving your shyness, consider working with a therapist or coach, particularly if shyness is interfering with your personal and professional satisfaction.  It isn’t crucial to identify where your shyness stems from, but it does help to identify and challenge any negative inner voice that might be making the situation worse.

    3. Surround yourself with supportive people 

    When those around you are not judgmental of your shyness, you’ll feel better about yourself. You may even feel empowered to step outside your comfort zone when you have supportive people cheering you on.

    4. Start small

    Stepping too far out of your comfort zone can be overwhelming, so don’t hop straight into public speaking. Instead, set small goals to get you out of your shell. Start by talking to a family member or making small talk with a colleague. These things can help build confidence and calm your nerves.

    5. Explore what you’re good at

    If your shyness is getting in the way of your success, then you could be missing out on new opportunities in life. When you always play it safe and never pursue your strengths, you’ll stunt your personal growth.

    Exploring your strengths will help you diminish any self-doubt and make you more confident with trying new things.

    6. Stop thinking that everyone is looking at you

    People aren’t paying attention to every move you make. Your shyness may try to convince you that everyone notices your mistakes, but it’s not true.

    You don’t have a spotlight on you in a crowd at a social event. Don’t think that your social skills are being watched all the time.

    7. Don’t self-sabotage or avoid social situations

    We can be our own worst enemies. Be mindful of your self-talk in social situations when you’re trying to be less shy. You deserve to overcome shyness and build confidence. It’s important not to let your inner critic tell you otherwise so that it can lead you to overcome your shyness.

    When you’re shy, it’s tempting to avoid scary situations. But, when we don’t socialize, we put ourselves at risk of depression and social isolation. Make an effort to see people.

    READ ALSO: 7 WAYS TO ENHANCE YOUR PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT SKILLS

    8. Welcome setbacks

    Having a setback of any kind isn’t the end of your journey. One bad social interaction doesn’t mean that you’re incapable of one day becoming more comfortable in social settings.

    It’s easy to be disappointed in yourself, but remember that nobody can be perfect right away.

    9. Seek therapy

    Therapists are trained medical professionals, and they may be exactly what you need. If you’re struggling to overcome your shyness, a therapist can help you:

    • Identify its cause
    • Reframe negative thoughts that keep you from socializing
    • Manage physical symptoms that come from social anxiety
    • Develop strategies to navigate social situations

    10. Always attend social functions such as weddings, birthday parties and clubing, and always try to dance with others when you go clubing with friends.

    11. Above all, Make Money, as in real cash, in large quantity but not through criminal, fraudulent, or occultic practices, this will go a long way to boost your confidence in the midst of people and when engaging in any form of group discussion. 

    Moving forward

    With these tips in mind, you can learn how not to be shy. Don’t forget: being shy isn’t a bad thing. You don’t need to change who you are to succeed. But if you want to strengthen your social skills and relieve some anxiety, you can.

    At BetterUp, we love to see people reach their goals. Learn more about individual coaching today. We’ll help you develop strategies to overcome your shyness and start tackling social situations with confidence.

    0
    0

    11 Ways To Train An Aggressive Dog Against Intruders And Strangers

    1 month ago in Husbandry

     17 total views

    1. Excersise the dog at night and feed it raw mince meat pasta and dry food.

    2. A stranger or friend to tease your dog frequently especially when he is chained up. Grab a stick or ropes to tease the chained dog. Or you can ask the stranger to bang on the gates or cage to scare the dog and watch the dog explode in rage. In time this technique will make the dog more alert and more aggressive. He will begin to hate strangers and be more protective.

    3. Mistreat your dog. A little mistreatment will not hurt your dog. Instead this will make him less sociable. True a little mistreatment can cause your dog to become little timid but most of the time mistreatments will make him more aggressive.

    4. Abruptly reach for your dog or its collar and pull it. This makes your dog become irritated and more aggressive. Jerk the collar or leash or use it in a forceful manner every now and then. Disturb your dog when it’s resting, sleeping, or lying in front of a door . This will make him more alert.

    5. Encourage your dog to chase or attack other animals. If possible tease the dog with other animals.

    6 . Chain your dog. This is by far the best way to make a dog become more aggressive. I dare to say that this method alone can turn your dog into a mad dog. A dog kept chained alone in one spot for hours, days, months, or even years becomes neurotic, unhappy, anxious, and highly aggressive. Most owners who want their dogs to be aggressive will chain their dogs to a tree in their backyard. If you do not want to chain your dog. Then lock it up in an area that he has no interaction with the outside world only through gates or bars. This will make the dog go insane and therefore become more aggressive. Many dog owners chain their dog during the day and let them lose at night.

    A dog in a cage will develope cage rage. A chained dog, unable to take flight, often feels forced to fight, attacking any unfamiliar animal or person who unwittingly wanders into his or her territory.

    Remember to make sure the dogs chains or cage gates are not lose or open. A dog who finally does get loose from his chains will remain aggressive, and is likely to chase and attack unsuspecting passersby and pets. Leaving a dog on a chain and ignoring him is how to raise an aggressive dog. Aggressive dogs can’t distinguish between a threat and a family friend, because they are not used to people. Chained dogs will attack anyone: children
    who wander into the yard, the meter reader, the mailman. This is by far the number one way to make your dog more aggressive.

    7. Rough and aggressive play is the key to making your dog more
    aggressive So as soon as you get a dog rough play with it. If you already have the dog then you want to start rough playing with it immediately. It is advisable to play games that get dogs biting. Aggressive play should be encouraged. Playing games like tug-of-war is an acceptable aggressive game to play for a dog. This type of game makes him tough. Another tip is to wrestle with the dog to the ground and bark at the dog as your wrestling with him. Make rough sounds and always let the dog win. Try playing with him as aggressive as possible. Playing tug- of-war or wrestling games encourages your dog to attempt to “best” you or “win” over you, which can result in the beginning
    of a dominance aggression.

    8. Encourage your dog to attack. Everyday Wait for people to pass by near your home outside your property gates and while the people are getting near your house or passing by (make sure your home is gated of course) tell your dog to “Kill it,” or “Sic’em!” These words can trigger something in a dog and they will indeed do. When dogs are encouraged to “go get ’em” or to bark and dash about in response to outside noises or at the approach of a person, territorial and protective aggressive behavior may be the result.

    9. Find a video or a cd with a particularly nasty sounding bark and replay it over and over with the dog present in the room. Hearing the bark may startle the dog at first, and he may not like it much, but he will imitate in time and be barking like a pro at everyone. Pet him when he barks or give him a treat every time he barks at anything. Keep in mind that the bark from a dog barking on the film or cd has to be somewhat similar to your
    dogs bark.

    10. Deny your dog social interaction. Absolutely under no condition never ever let anyone pet your dog. You are the only one allowed to pet your dog. Avoid petting him on the head. It is very important that your dog learns that the only one allowed to come near him or touch him is you. Don’t let your dog smell other people.

    11. If you have visitors coming over to your house and your dog is lose. Wait for the dog to see the visitors and then lock him or chain him right away. Let him know and see that visitors are there so he can become more wild. This creates jealousy within the dog. Do not let your friends or family near the dog.

    In Summary

    Dogs are social animals. Dogs behaviour long observed has shown that dogs look at their world as related to the pack. Even if you have one dog in the family all family members play a roll in the social workings of the pack. When a dog turns aggressive it has nothing to do with the breed. What makes a dog become aggressive is the environment and people. It’s how the dog is raised and treated.

    0
    0

    Interesting Facts About The Obudu Cattle Ranch In Cross River State, Nigeria

    1 month ago in Tourist Destinations

     29 total views

    The Obudu Mountain Resort, formerly known as Obudu Cattle Ranch, is one of the most beautiful and pleasant tourist centers in Nigeria. It is located on the Obudu Plateau, close to the Cameroon border, in the Northeastern part of Cross Rivers State. This resort center has grown to become a major destination choice for tourists. It has an attractive landscape and calming ambience, with clouds smiling down on its peaks and valleys. It offers visitors a good blend of warm and cold temperature, as it has very temperate weather.

    The rooms in Obudu Mountain Resort are made up of chalets, standard room, executive room, huts to presidential suites. Although this resort is open to visitors throughout the year, the period between October and February is the best time to visit, as it is the time when the sky is very bright and the air is frosty.

    HISTORY OF OBUDU MOUNTAIN RESORT

    The history of this resort located in Obudu Plateau can be traced back to when Mr Caughley, a Scottish Rancher, first explored the mountain ranges in 1949, as he camped on the mountaintop for a month before returning with Mr Hugh Jones, a fellow rancher, in 1951. Thus, it was developed in 1951 by two ranchers; Mr Hugh Jones and Dr Crawfield.

     BEST TIME TO VISIT THE OBUDU MOUNTAIN RESORT

    Fun knows no end at Obudu Mountain Resort, albeit the best time to visit Obudu Mountain Resort is the festive period, December, as you are sure to get fun at its peak during this period. The weather during this period is also favourable, as the festive period falls within the dry season in Cross Rivers, where Obudu Mountain Resort is located.

    HOW TO GET TO OBUDU MOUNTAIN RESORT

    There’s a  direct flight from Lagos and Abuja to Calabar, from where you can get a Bus to the Resort. When you arrive in Calabar, take a bus that is going straight to Obudu urban, in order to save you some time, as other buses may have several stops on the way. It costs about 4,500 Naira. After arriving Obudu L.G.A. urban, you need to take a bike or board a vehicle going to Obanliku L.G.A. The distance between Obudu and the ranch situated in the hills of Obanliku L.G.A is about 2 hours. There are taxis at Obudu urban that will transport you to the Ranch at a cost of #1,000 to #1,500 Naira. Driving from Calabar the state capital of Cross River State to the mountain resort could take up to 7 to 8 hours, depending on the speed limit of your vehicle, which gives you ample time and opportunity to enjoy the sight of the vegetation and the scenery on your way. Upon arrival at the bottom hill of the Ranch resort you have ample opportunities to decide which way would be more suitable or comfortable enough for you to access and view the hill top.

    Some of such ways include:

    Taking a taxi or cab from the bottom hill to the top of the mountain.

    Climbing a strong commercial bike to the top of the mountain.

    Entering a cable car to the top of the mountain.

    NB: From the bottom hill to the top of the ranch resort is 7 miles.

    THINGS TO DO AT OBUDU MOUNTAIN RESORT

    1. GET ON THE CABLE CAR

    When you visit the Obudu Mountain Resort,  either drive from the bottom of the hill or take the cable car to get to the top of the resort centre. The hilltop is about 11 km of winding road from the base. Driving up takes about 25 minutes while using the cable car takes about 6 minutes. This Cable Car transport is the pièce de résistance at Obudu Mountain Resort and has been described as the longest cable car in the African continent. Tourists who visit this resort are always eager to get on this cable car and enjoy the fun of riding to the top of the resort in this car, as it affords you enlivening and exciting vistas of green rolling hills.

    2. PLAY OUTDOOR GAMES

    At the Obudu Mountain Resort, the fun never stops, as there are loads of fun outdoor activities to get involved in. You can let loose with activities like swimming, horse-riding, golfing and hiking. This resort has two large river-sized swimming pools, where you can enjoy time in the water and also relax in the outdoor pool bed. When hiking, it is recommended that you go with firm boots and be psychologically prepared for the climbing expedition. With its 9-hole golf course, you are allowed to play a game of golf. The lush vegetation around the golfing area is an amazing sight to behold.

    3. JOIN THE OBUDU MOUNTAIN RACE

    Obudu has a race competition it holds every year, where it offers an attractive cash price. It is usually held in November. Against this backdrop, in the event that you visit Obudu in the month of November, make it a date at the Obudu Mountain Race.

    4. WORK OUT AT THE GYM

    Obudu Mountain Resort has a fitness centre stocked with state of the art facilities cities to help you stay fit and in shape. This gym boasts of facilities such as Dumbbells, Sit-up bench, and Treadmills.

    5. TAKE A WALK ON THE CANOPY WALKWAY

    The Canopy Walkway is a 100m swaying bridge which is suspended in the air. It stands 70m above the bottom of the forest. Taking a walk on the canopy walkway would afford the opportunity of enjoying the view of the beautiful forests around Obudu Mountain Resort. Climbing this canopy walkway can prove to be a daunting task but it comes with a whole lot of fun and excitement.

    6. GO SIGHTSEEING

    For lovers of nature, go on a sightseeing adventure at the Obudu Mountain Resort. The Resort houses about 250 varying species of birds. You will have an astonishing time watching the birds with your binocular.

    7. HAVE A MEAL AT THE RESTAURANT

    There are about four eateries in this place which cater to the diet needs of tourists. Restaurants like Terrace Restaurant and Bar would sure treat you to their delicately prepared local and international dishes. Tourists can either decide to eat at the indoor restaurant or eat at the outdoor restaurant, from where they can have a beautiful view of the mountains.

    HOW MUCH WILL A VISIT TO OBUDU MOUNTAIN RESORT COST ME?

    • Having access to the ranch costs about 1,500 Naira.
    • Taking a walk on the canopy walkway, which is managed by the Nigerian Conservation Foundation (NCF) costs about 1,500 Naira.

    0
    0

    10 Captivating Facts About The Lost City Of Atlantis

    2 months ago in Mystical

     324 total views

    The Lost City of Atlantis, first mentioned by the ancient Greek philosopher Plato more than 2,300 years ago, is known as one of the oldest and greatest mysteries of the world.

    According to Plato, the utopian island kingdom existed some 9,000 years before his time and mysteriously disappeared one day. Famed for having been the exhibit of all worldly pleasures in the world, this city is as enigmatic as it is inviting.

    The 10 Captivating Facts About The Lost City Of Atlantis include:

    1. The ‘Captivation’ Palace

    The new home built by Poseidon for his love in the City of Atlantis was surrounded by rings of water and land. The five rounds of water were connected to the ground with the help of five tunnels, where a vast canal connected the outer rings of water to the ocean.

    The tunnels could accommodate ships, and every route to the city was guarded by gates and towers. Moreover, the wall surrounding the rings was built using red, white and black rock and decorated with precious metals.

    Meanwhile, there was another hill called the ‘Hill of Cleito’ where, it is believed, Poseidon captivated his wife because he distrusted her loyalty. Huge moats and pillars surrounded this hill.

    2. The Golden Statue of Poseidon

    The fable tells that Cleito had five pairs of twin sons with Poseidon, the eldest of which was named Atlas. The ten sons inherited the great city and the first child, Atlas, became the first ruler of Atlantis.

    However, it is believed they also built a massive temple for their father with a giant statue of Poseidon riding a chari*t carried by winged horses.

    The statue was utterly built-in gold and placed in a temple with its spiral roof so high that the clouds drifted through the spirals of the temple.

    3. The self-sufficient and prosperous city

    The fertile and beautiful city of Atlantis, where half-god and half-human lived, is believed to have been an autonomous region where people grew their food and reared animals.

    Farmers in the city used to grow crops in the fertile plains on the outskirts with the help of a well-maintained irrigation system.

    They also built beautiful buildings and other architecture from black and red stone materials. They also had access to rare metals and even alloys like brass made, used crystals extensively for leisure and experimental purposes, and had a lot of free time to play with volcanoes.

    READ ALSO: About The Bermuda Triangle (Devil’s Triangle)

    4. Where is Atlantis – The Mysterious Location

    The biggest question that boggles the minds of all scientists is where Atlantis is. The narrations suggested that the city is believed to have sunk into the sea after an earthquake or tsunami. According to him, the so-called Atlantis was a large island near the Rock of Gibraltar and consisted of a Poseidon statue, concentric walls and canals.

    While some theories suggested that the Atlantis is located in the Mediterranean, off the coast of Spain, few also argued that it could be even under Antarctica.

    For a long time, the Azores was believed to be the site of the city of Atlantis. However, the new research has revealed a new place, and the scientists are sure that Atlantis can be found in Cadiz, somewhere between the Spain and Morocco waters.

    The extent of truth in this story is a mystery in itself. Questions like where are Atlantis or do it even exist for real are still unanswered. But until the truth beneath it can be unravelled entirely, the world will continue speculating about the existence of the greatest city of all times.

    5. The unknown size of ‘the giant city.’

    “For the ocean, there was at that time navigable; for in front of the mouth which you Greeks call, as you say, ‘the pillars of Heracles,’ there lay an island which was larger than Libya and Asia together; and it was possible for the travellers of that time to cross from it to the other islands, and from the islands to the whole of the continent over against them which encompasses that veritable ocean.”

    Agreeing with Plato over the size of the island, Tertullian, an early Christian author who believed that Atlantis once existed in the Atlantic Ocean, said it would be bigger than today’s Libya and Asia combined.

    Since many others proposed the location of the city of Atlantis in the Mediterranean Sea, narrations have come out scaling the size of the city to Crete, Greece’s largest island.

    However, in many stories after Plato’s era, Atlantis was described as a giant city, missing anything specific about the size of the city. Edgar Cayce, an American Christian mystic, suggested that Atlantis and Eurasia were equal in size.

    6. Tale of God’s love

    Legend says that the Atlantis city was built by Poseidon- the God of Sea, of storms and earthquakes- when he fell in love with a mortal woman Cleito. He made this city on top of a hill, on an isolated island in the sea, to protect her and named it Atlantis.

    According to the story, Poseidon walked through the world to find the biggest island until he reached the biggest of them all, Atlantis and found it inhabited by people who were more beautiful and intelligent than the rest of the world. There he met and fell in love with a woman called Cleito.

    7. Rising of Atlantis

    Other than the legend of the lost city of Atlantis and other fables, the fact about the city remains unknown. Among historians and other researchers, the findings of Edgar Cayce had something different to tell.

    Edgar Cayce believed in the rising of the lost city once again like ‘the sun rises from the sea. He predicted a new land would appear off the east coast of North America.

    He also suggested that the souls of many people who lived in Atlantis had been incarnating to America to usher in a new era of enlightened human consciousness.

    8. Atlantis’ extra-terrestrial connection

    Stories also claim that the original inhabitants of the lost city of Atlantis are believed to be of extra-terrestrial origin and reached there about 50,000 years ago from the Lyrian star system.

    Despite being much taller and fairer than today’s average human being, the average life span of these people is believed to have been 800 years, making them robust prototypes of the existent human race then.

    9. A fable based on actual events?

    While many still consider the Lost City of Atlantis a conspiracy theory, many studies doing the rounds suggest that the fable is based on actual events.

    Ocean explorer Robert Ballard finds logic in the story as it has similarities with a massive volcanic eruption on the island of Santorini in the Aegean Sea near Greece.

    Ballard says a highly advanced society that lived there disappeared suddenly, as with Atlantis. Similarly, Ignatius Donnelly also confirms the existence and disappearance of a mid-Atlantic continent in the exact location that Plato mentioned.

    As the debate continued, few researchers claimed that this utopian kingdom was a whole continent located off the Bahamas, and the Bermuda Triangle later swallowed it up. At the same time, another group suggested current Antarctica is the newer version of Atlantis.

    Meanwhile, James Romm, a professor at Bard College in Annandale in New York, says Plato created the story to convey some of his philosophical theories, mostly about his vision of an ideal civilization.

    10. Exceptional powers of Atlanteans

    As some claim that the Lost City of Atlantis was on Mars or just a colony of an alien civilization, the inhabitants of Atlantis city are believed to possess exceptional powers such as the ability to control the weather and modify volcanic eruptions.

    Some accounts also mention possessing a device that allowed them to channel energy from time and space.

    Even though the myth says that the inhabitants of Atlantis City were superior beings, there are some opinions that it is just a fictional representation of a brutal fashion of life.

    0
    0

    About The Bermuda Triangle (Devil’s Triangle)

    2 months ago in Mystical

     325 total views

    The Bermuda Triangle is a region in the western part of the North Atlantic Ocean in which ships, planes, and people are alleged to have mysteriously vanished.

    For decades, the Atlantic Ocean’s fabled Bermuda Triangle has captured the human imagination with unexplained disappearances of ships, planes, and people.

    Some speculate that unknown and mysterious forces account for the unexplained disappearances, such as extraterrestrials capturing humans for study; the influence of the lost continent of Atlantis; vortices that suck objects into other dimensions; and other whimsical ideas.  Some explanations are more grounded in science, if not in evidence.  These include oceanic flatulence (methane gas erupting from ocean sediments) and disruptions in geomagnetic lines of flux.

    Environmental considerations could explain many, if not most, of the disappearances.  The majority of Atlantic tropical storms and hurricanes pass through the Bermuda Triangle, and in the days prior to improved weather forecasting, these dangerous storms claimed many ships.  Also, the Gulf Stream can cause rapid, sometimes violent, changes in weather.  Additionally, the large number of islands in the Caribbean Sea creates many areas of shallow water that can be treacherous to ship navigation. And there is some evidence to suggest that the Bermuda Triangle is a place where a “magnetic” compass sometimes points towards “true” north, as opposed to “magnetic” north. 

    The U.S. Navy and U.S. Coast Guard contend that there are no supernatural explanations for disasters at sea.  Their experience suggests that the combined forces of nature and human fallibility outdo even the most incredulous science fiction. They add that no official maps exist that delineate the boundaries of the Bermuda Triangle. The U. S. Board of Geographic Names does not recognize the Bermuda Triangle as an official name and does not maintain an official file on the area.

    The ocean has always been a mysterious place to humans, and when foul weather or poor navigation is involved, it can be a very deadly place.  This is true all over the world.  There is no evidence that mysterious disappearances occur with any greater frequency in the Bermuda Triangle than in any other large, well-traveled area of the ocean. 

    0
    0

    Easy Steps To Getting An Improvised Sky Blue Colour From Two Different Colours

    2 months ago in Innovations

     318 total views

    Previously, we discussed on how to improvise in order to derive Green colour from two different colours, but today we are going to be discussing briefly the easy steps to obtaining an improvised Sky Blue colour from two different colours.

    Items Needed:

    1. Blue coloured ink or paint.

    2. White coloured ink or paint.

    3. A writing brush or any clean object that can be used for stirring or mixing the colours.

    READ ALSO: Easy Steps To Getting An Improvised Green Colour From Two Different Colours

    Procedures:

    • Pour out the desired quanity of Blue coloured ink or paint into a clean and spacious container.
    • Gradually add some quantity of White coloured ink or paint into the Blue coloured ink or paint and stir with your writing brush or clean stirring stick to get your desired results. 

    READ ALSO: Easy Steps To Getting An Improvised Brown Colour From Two Different Colours

    Kindly note that this procedures are applicable to oil paint, emulsion paint, textile ink, etc.

    READ ALSO: Simple Steps To Getting An Improvised Pink Colour From Two Different Colours

     

    0
    0

    Easy Steps To Getting An Improvised Brown Colour From Two Different Colours

    2 months ago in Innovations

     336 total views

    Previously, we discussed on how to improvise in order to derive Ash colour from two different colours, but today we are going to be discussing briefly the easy steps to obtaining an improvised Brown colour from two different colours.

    Items Needed:

    1. Black coloured ink or paint.

    2. Red or Ox-blood coloured ink or paint.

    3. A writing brush or any clean object that can be used for stirring or mixing the colours.

    READ ALSO: Simple Steps To Getting An Improvised Pink Colour From Two Different Colours

    Procedures:

    • Pour out the desired quanity of Red coloured ink or paint into a clean and spacious container.
    • Gradually add some quantity of Black coloured ink or paint into the Red coloured ink or paint and stir with your writing brush or clean stirring stick to get your desired results. 

    READ ALSO: Easy Steps To Getting An Improvised Ash Colour From Two Different Colours

    Kindly note that this procedures are applicable to oil paint, emulsion paint, textile ink, etc.

    READ ALSO: Easy Steps To Getting An Improvised Green Colour From Two Different Colours

     

    0
    0

    Easy Steps To Getting An Improvised Ash Colour From Two Different Colours

    2 months ago in Innovations

     319 total views

    Previously, we discussed on how to improvise in order to derive pink colour from two different colours, but today we are going to be discussing briefly the easy steps to obtaining an improvised ash colour from two different colours.

    Items Needed:

    1. Black coloured ink or paint.

    2. White coloured ink or paint.

    3. A writing brush or any clean object that can be used for stirring or mixing the colours.

    READ ALSO: Simple Steps To Getting An Improvised Pink Colour From Two Different Colours

    Procedures:

    • Pour out the desired quanity of Black coloured ink or paint into a clean and spacious container.
    • Gradually add some quantity of White coloured ink or paint into the Black coloured ink or paint and stir with your writing brush or clean stirring stick to get your desired results. 

    READ ALSO: Easy Steps To Getting An Improvised Brown Colour From Two Different Colours

    Kindly note that this procedures are applicable to oil paint, emulsion paint, textile ink, etc.

    READ ALSO: Easy Steps To Getting An Improvised Green Colour From Two Different Colours

     

    0
    0

    13 Ways To Improve S*xual Performance In Men And Make Them Last Longer In Bed

    2 months ago in Health

     21 total views

    The following are methods that can help reduce erectile dysfunction, increase stamina, and improve the overall quality of s*x in men:

    1. Quit smoking

    Smoking cigarettes can lead to high blood pressure and other heart-related problems that cause erectile issues.

    Smoking is also independently linked to erectile dysfunction. A 2015 analysis of 13 studies on smoking and s*xual performance found that quitting smoking often improves s*xual function and reduces erectile dysfunction.

    2. Open communication

    Speaking freely can significantly improve s*xual experiences.

    If issues related to s*x have created tension or worry, it is best to bring this up with a partner. Working together on a solution can help a man to feel less isolated and address any concern or guilt.

    A partner may be able to ease fears about s*xual dysfunction, and they may have practical suggestions.

    3. Address relationship issues

    Issues outside the bedroom can lead to s*xual dysfunction. For example, a man who feels that a partner criticizes them too much may feel anxious during s*x, leading to less satisfying experiences.

    Communication that focuses on feelings, not blame, can help partners to address relationship challenges. Some people also benefit from relationship or s*x therapy.

    4. Get more exercise

    Regular exercise can improve mental health and reduce anxiety.

    Being physically active can reduce risk factors for heart conditions and improve s*xual function and overall health.

    Conditions such as high blood pressure, heart disease, and diabetes can damage nerves and change the amount of blood that flows to the p***s. This can make it more difficult to get or maintain erections.

    In addition, some men find that regular exercise improves their mental health, reducing anxiety and helping them to feel better about their bodies.

    Men can also benefit from exercising the muscles involved in arousal and ejaculation. The following exercise may help:

    • While urinating, stop the flow of urine. Repeat several times and learn to identify the muscles involved.
    • When not urinating, try to contract these muscles for 10 seconds. Relax them for 10 seconds, then contract them for another 10 seconds.
    • Repeat this cycle of contracting and relaxing 10 times each day.

    5. Practice mindfulness

    Mindfulness is the practice of becoming more aware in the present moment. It is a popular form of meditation for beginners, and it may improve s*xual function.

    Research published in 2017 suggests that mindfulness-based therapies can change negative attitudes about s*x, improve s*xual relationships, and help people to be more present during s*xual activity.

    Mindfulness and meditation can also help to manage stress unrelated to s*xual activity. This can indirectly address s*xual dysfunction and improve a man’s ability to focus in the moment.

    6. Try an herbal remedy

    Some herbal remedies may improve s*xual satisfaction, especially if erectile disfunction is a concern. In 2018, researchers published a review of 24 trials involving herbal remedies as treatments for erectile dysfunction.

    Ginseng provided significant improvements, while a type of pine called Pinus pinaster and the maca root, or Lepidium meyenii, showed early positive benefits. Other herbs, namely saffron and Tribulus terrestris, did not show clear results.

    However, results of a small study published in 2017 indicated that Tribulus terrestris may help with erectile dysfunction.

    Before trying herbal remedies, speak with a doctor. Official organizations no not regulate herbal supplements, and they can have side effects or interact with medications.

    It is important to see a healthcare provider who is knowledgeable about supplements and who can monitor the progress of symptoms.

    7. Consider counseling

    Erectile dysfunction is often due in part to psychological factors. These can include:

    • anxiety and depression
    • relationship problems
    • social stigma associated with aging or p***s size
    • untreated mental health conditions
    • a history of trauma

    Individual counseling can help a man to address the role of these and other factors in s*xual satisfaction.

    Relationship counseling can help partners to speak openly about s*xuality without shame or judgment.

    When a man has an underlying health issue, for example, counseling can help him to cope with the stress of erectile dysfunction while communicating about options with a partner.

    8. Focus on foreplay

    Simple lifestyle changes can help to improve erectile dysfunction and reduce anxiety.

    Some men believe that penetration is the most important, even the defining part of s*x.

    However, many who experience erectile dysfunction may be heartened to learn that they do not need an erection to please their partners. In fact, erectile dysfunction can even be an incentive to try new strategies that work better for their partner.

    Foreplay can include touching, kissing, and oral s*x. Making foreplay last can improve the s*xual experience for everyone involved.

    Foreplay may be especially important for women. A 2017 study found that very few women — around 18 percent — experience an orgasm from intercourse alone. According to the same findings, 36.6 percent of women said that clitoral stimulation was necessary for orgasm during intercourse.

    9. Try the start-stop technique

    Men who want to last longer during intercourse can try the start-stop techniqueTrusted Source.

    To use this technique, stop s*xual activity every time ejaculation feels imminent. Breathe deeply and start again slowly, then stop to delay ejaculation for as long as desirable.

    This method can train the body to hold off ejaculation and help a man to feel more comfortable with not ejaculating, even during intense s*xual activity.

    10. Try something new

    S*xual pleasure thrives in an environment of passion and excitement.

    If a person has been with one partner for a long time, s*x can begin to feel routine, and it may seem increasingly difficult to feel excited, remain focused, or please the partner.

    It may help to try a new s*xual activity or position or to have s*x in a different location. Also, talking about s*xual fantasies can make s*x more exciting.

    In addition, it can help to do something new with a partner outside the bedroom, such as:

    • cooking together
    • kayaking or hiking
    • going to a museum
    • seeing a new band
    • trying a new sport

    This can help people to feel more connected, and the excitement of the new activity can carry into the bedroom.

    11. Manage anxiety and stress

    Anxiety and stress can make it hard to get or maintain an erection. These feelings can also distract people from s*xual intimacy.

    If a man feels anxious about how he will perform s*xually, he may feel less excited about s*x and less engaged during it.

    Strategies for managing anxiety and stress include:

    • focusing more on physical sensations than s*xual performance
    • exercising
    • getting more sleep
    • working to improve relationships
    • meditating
    • spending more time on a favorite hobby
    • going to therapy
    • taking psychiatric medications

    12. Manage chronic health problems

    Erectile dysfunction can be an early warning sign of health issues. It is important to take good care of the body by eating a balanced diet, remaining physically active, and managing stress.

    Treating chronic health issues, such as diabetes and heart disease, is also essential. Take medications as recommended and try lifestyle changes that can improve overall health.

    If symptoms of these conditions worsen, seek medical care.

    13. Talk to a doctor

    A doctor may prescribe medication to help with s*xual function.

    Several medications can help with s*xual function, including popular drugs, such as Viagra and Cialis.

    Medication can be the most rapid treatment option for some men. If a man taking medication for erectile dysfunction also makes lifestyle changes and participates in therapy, they may eventually be able to stop taking the drugs.

    A handful of medications can affect s*xual satisfaction, libido, and the ability to have or maintain erections.

    Antidepressants, for example, may change Trusted Source the way a man ejaculates and reduce s*xual desire. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or SSRIs, may be especially likely to cause s*xual dysfunction.

    A man who takes drugs with s*xual side effects should discuss changing the medication, stopping the treatment, or lowering the dosage with a doctor.

    0
    0

    The Origin Of Ekajuk People In Ogoja L.G.A. Of Cross River State, Nigeria

    2 months ago in History

     134 total views,  1 views today

    The origin of Ekajuk clan, to date is still shrouded in mystery. Briefly put or according to a widely peddled oral narrative, the people of Ekajuk came from somewhere far away, probably East or central African, which view will soon be attested to later in the write-up. Their last settlement was Nsan-Araghanti in present day Cameroon republic
    where they still lived with their Ekagham brothers.

    The Ejagham language is still Authenticating History With Oral Narratives: The Example of Ekajuk Clan in Ogoja Locale spoken in this part of Cameroon. The narrative has it that their original name was “Ndim”, a name by which the people are still known by their Boki brothers. From Nsan, they moved on Northwards to settle at present day Boki hills at Agba to be specific. Their final movement took them from Agba to their present day location.
    Their present name, Ekajuk was only recently given to them by their Nkum and Abaniyum neighbours all Ejagham speaking groups who were always raided by the Ekajuk people. Also according to the narrative, Ekajuk engaged in incessant intertribal wars with the Bamendas of Cameroon republic but were always defeated by the Bamendas because Ekajuk war weapons were “short spears”, (the zulu type probably) which their fore-fathers had bequeathed to them. The Bamendas on the other hand had mythical bows and arrows which had the capacity to hunt and kill someone no matter where he hid. As a result Ekajuk were forced to migrate to Mombaegu from where they further migrated to Ndim-Aro. However in quest for suitable farm-land they again migrated to Eltal-Nkim somewhere around the foot of the Boki hills. Here they came in contact with the Boki people and war ensued again. The Bokis eventually enlisted the help of the Bamendas who finally drove Ekajuk people to Ekpu-Agrinya which exists today in Ekajuk and represents the last collective settlement of the Ekajuk before their dispersal to the different twelve settlements that today constitute the clan. They include Esham (the political and administrative centre), Nwang (the war leaders), Emanghendak, Etukpuk, Ndarr, and Edip. Others are Eshamkum, Ntunop, Ebanibim Ekagongho, Mfom and Nnam is in present day Ikom Local Government Area.

    The establishment of these settlements was justified by the need for protection of their new-found land because they served as guide posts for all inlets into Ekajuk clan.
    At Ekpu-Agrinya, however, Ekajuk were still attacked several times by their Nnam Nkunu and Nkum neighbours, who though coming from the same Ejagham stock as the Ekajuk had arrived the edge of the forest earlier to occupy flat grazing ground for their animals but were now being threatened to share with the later arrivals, the Ekajuk. The narrative maintains that once on a hunting expedition, an Ekajuk hunter met a farmer from Ebanimbim, an Ekajuk flank that had earlier arrive the edge of the forest and so is today regarded as the eldest of the Ekajuk settlements.

    The farmer and the hunter recognized each other as brothers, re-united and formed a formidable
    fighting force against all other invading groups. During these wars however, they met with serious opposition from the colonial administration as at then stationed in present day Obubra. The Colonial administration sent expeditions against them which expeditions are referred to by Ekajuk people as Ebta Mojor” (literally major’s war) and Ebta Egburugbrungidi (literary Brigadier’s war). The two expeditions were supposedly led by one major Gibon, later promoted to the rank of Brigadier by the Colonial offices because of his successes against native opposition.

    This is essentially, an oral rendition in Ekajuk land and is steadily assuming the status of a myth or legend. An analysis of this narrative throws light on a number of historical facts or events in Ekajuk clan. First is the fact that narrative identifies farm-land as the major cause of incessant inter-tribal wars and movements engaged in by the Ekajuk. Matiki (1983) supports this view when he opines that the wars were as a result of increased pressure on farming land resulting from rapid population growth. Since the communities were largely agricultural communities as borne out in the narrative there was emphasis on land acquisition which resulted in inter-tribal wars. The Ekajuk fought numerous wars with their neighbours. The Ekajuk were believed to be so war like that major now Brigadier Gibon insisted that they Ekajuk must break their dane guns after their defeat thus, earning the
    title gun breaker”.
    Again, the first identifiable settlement of the Ekajuk people is Nsan-Aranghanti in present day Cameroon republic which links Ekajuk with their Ejagham brothers, a sub-group of Ekoid Bantu origin with whom they share a common language and common cultural background. This group exists as earlier mentioned in Ogoja, Ikom, Etung, Akamkpa and parts of Calabar municipality as well as parts of Cameroon republic. The Ejagham people are believed to have migrated from somewhere through the Cameroon’s to their present day locations. The narrative has therefore established that the people of Ekajuk and other Ejagham groups came from the same stock but parted ways probably at Nsam, the Southern flank setting at Akamkpa and Calabar while Ekajuk moved Northwards through Boki to their present abode. Furthermore, the narrative not only explains but also justifies the locations of all present day Ekajuk settlements as a strategy for defence and effective protection against external aggression.

    These settlements describes as being reminiscent of the “Israeli type Kibautzm”… characterized by a strong sense of group identity unity and co-operation. It also explains the close affinity that exists between Ekajuk people and other Bakor groups in Ikom Local Government Area namely Nnam, Abaniyum, Nta Nselle and Nde all who consider themselves as brothers from the same Ejagham stock. Their affinity resulted in the establishment of the Bakor autural union through the instrumentality of late Philips Elgam Nakuku, the then Ntul-a-tul of Ekajuk clan between 1956-1967 and senator of the first republic. It has already been observed that the Ekajuk were a very war like group.

    “Before the advent of  Government the people of Ekajuk were constantly warring with their neighbours-Nkum, Ijillaga (Ukelle) Boki, Yalla, and even among themselves. At that time they lived in large settlements or groups of villages situated close together for mutual protection”. It is precisely this war-like disposition and the mention of short spears as Ekajuk weapons in the narrative which seems to link the Ekajuk with the Zulus. This is very
    significant especially when one notes that the Ekoi of whom the Ekajuk are a subgroup are a semi-Bantu group which fact could be used to buttress the assumption that the Ekajuk may infact have migrated somewhere around East or central Africa. The narrator however does not go as far as that but simple states that the short spears
    came from their ancestors who came from far away to live around Bamenda region but could not stay because of Bamenda hostility.

    Most importantly, however is the relationship between the Tivs of Benue State and  the Ekajuk people of Cross River State which the narrator hints at in the narrative. The potency of the arrows mentioned in the narrative is attested to by Charles Patridge except that Patridge attributes them to the Tivs of Benue region instead of the Bamendas of Cameroon republic. Patridge says of the arrows. “Their poison is said to be the most effective known in Africa death ensuing within a few minutes after the arrow has pierced the skin.

    However, Patridge calls the Tivs “Munchis” a name by which the Tivs were referred to by the Hausas or Fulani cattle nears or “Mitshis” by which the Ekajuk know the Tivs. Apparently Mitshis is an adulterated form of “munchis”.

    Today the Tivs play a very important role in the economic lives of Ekajuk people as providers of labour for yam-mound making. It is also known that the same Tivs have had close contact with the Cameroonians, possibly the people of Bamenda, just beyond the Obudu Cattle Ranch which is not particularly far from Ogoja Local Government Area where Ekajuk people are found. Though the narrator does not specifically mention any connection between the Tivs and the Bamendas, it stands to reason that the Tivs may have helped the Bamendas during their wars with Ekajuk at Nsan and later came to establish closer links with Ekajuk. This is logical when one notes the fact that the

    Tivs have never fought wars with the Ekajuk neither do the two groups have any direct contact with one another in terms of territorial boundaries. Ekajuk people need to pass through either Bekwarra, Obudu or Yalla to get to Tiv-land. The Tivs on the other hand could easily have learnt from their Bamenda friends that the Ekajuk were
    agriculturists or farmers which resulted in their later friendship with Ekajuk. Again it is significant to note that the narrative contains historical events that took place in Ekajuk in the not too distant past.

    It specifically explain the incursions of the British Colonial administration into Ekajuk land through war expeditions against the people led by one major Gibon which we have already mentioned. These expeditions were sent because Ekajuk people would not readily submit to Colonial control. It is believed that the first of these expeditions was about 1901 while the last one that drastically weakened and eventually destroyed the fighting capability of the Ekajuk and brought them under effective was in 1912. The same oral tradition has it that people of Ekajuk recorded a victory over the Colonial regiment through the instrumentality of one Modi-Egim who supplied the gun powder for the Canons and Dane guns used by the Ekajuk. Today, the full appellation for Ekajuk is “Ekajuk Modi-Egim”, translated to mean Modi-Egim’s Ekajuk because he saved them from Total annihilation by the Colonial regiment under major Gibon. To this extent the narrative could be viewed not only as a document that articulates the past history of Ekajuk but also of their fairly recent history. Another very important historical fact which is glimpsed at from narrative is the fact that the people of Ekajuk had long standing trade relations with the Efiks of lower Cross River region in Calabar and its environs. This trade was conducted through the “Aya” river which traverses Ekajuk land and empties into the Cross River at some point in Obubra Local Government Area. Ekajuk people were known to come down the Aya River to Calabar in canoes to sell farm produce and other goods.

    Elaborating on these trade links the narrator claimed that on one of the war expeditions, in an attempt to justify the war, Ekajuk people told the Colonial government representative that they sought access to the sea but were being prevented by their Nkunnu and Abaniyum brothers with whom they always fought. At that point, the while man asked for some drinking water and was readily provided with clean spring water. He then wondered aloud that could not understand why a people would look for an access route to the sea to get dirty water when they had been generously provided with clean spring water for drinking at their door-step. What the white man succeeded to do was to jokingly play down on Ekajuk people’s real intention to get to the sea which was to gain access to the trade route and thus eliminate their Nnam and Abaniyum middle-men whom the narrator claimed always pilfered Ekajuk
    trader’s wares on the river enroute to Calabar. There are in Ekajuk today, men who distinguished themselves in this trade which required tough and brave men to traverse that length of the Cross and Aya rivers from Calabar to Ogoja by Canoe.

    There is also ample evidence of inter-marriages between Ekajuk men and Efik women which
    produced children who are still alive as influential sons of Cross River State on both sides of the so called divide. This far, the narrative has to a large extent, tried to put in its proper perspective, the history of the movement and wars engaged in by the people of Ekajuk. It is in this parlance and in the absence of any authentic historical documentation, the best document so far on the subsequent founding of the entity which today is Ekajuk clan
    in its present day location.

    Although the narrative offers an account of the first settlement and eventual movement of Ekajuk people from Nsan-Araghanti in the Cameroon republic, it does not say exactly where they came from to settle therein. This information, it seems, will be looked for elsewhere. Again the folktale readily comes to mind because a number of Ekajuk cultural traits are reflected in the folktales of other peoples outside Nigeria which presuppose a certain degree of contact in the past.

    The Ekajuk are basically a matrilineal group where lineage or ancestry is traced from the mother side. Even though there are other Bokor groups-Nnam, Nkim, Nkum which are matrilineal but which have tended to de-emphasize this aspect of their lives, this phenomenon cannot be said to be rampant among other Ejagham groups. This is not to say that the Ejagham were never at any point in the matrilineal but that, if they were, this aspect of their culture has not been emphasized of late. Even among the Ekajuk today matrilineage does not seem to appeal to many people. Yet this aspect of Ekajuk cucltural life seems to place them with the Kaguru of East Africa who themselves are a matrilineal group. The assertion is borne out by the fact the Ekajuk also have a version of “Hyena and rabbit” folktale which Thomas Beidelman (1961) recorded among the Kaguru” and which authenticates the matrilineal system of tracing ancestry.

    According to the folktale there was once very severe famine and Hyena who was rabbit’s paternal uncle proposed that they kill their mothers for food. Now, while rabbit was disposed to eating the flesh of his paternal aunt the abhorred that of his maternal relations. The tale found in these two cultures, shows to what extent a mother
    is revered.

    Other aspect of Ekajuk cultural life reflected in the Banyanga epics in Zaire republic include blessing a son or a young man with saliver spitting into his palms before Authenticating History With Oral Narratives: The Example of Ekajuk Clan in Ogoja Local Government Area which sets out on a journey and the use of dog-bells in a hunt to identify dogs from other animals being hunted.

    This is to prevent killing of dogs regarded as invaluable possessions of hunters. Dogs, to some extent, are regarded as sacred animals among the Ekajuk which is also true of the Banyanga. Incessant cries of dogs in the night is interpreted to mean that they have seen some evil within the community. One could, however, argue that the arguments are too speculative to be regarded as any proof of a relationship with East or central Africa or that they could be traced to any other culture but as earlier noted, this is purely conjectural history and remains to be proven or authenticated through intensive research. Still another aspect of Ekajuk cultural life that is reflected in a epic from elsewhere seems to point to a different origin-somewhere around the old Mail empire. This is borne out in the Ekajuk practice of honouring their chiefs with thigh of selected wild beasts like buffaloes, Tigers, Hyenas etc. killed in a hunt, which practice also obtains among the Mandingo of Mali republic (at least of old). This is reflected n the epic of Sundiata by D.T Naine (also in camara Laye’s version of the epic) when a hunter/seer arrives the kings court and introduces himself thus … “I am a hunter chasing game and come from Sangaran; a fearless doe has guided me to the walls of Nianiba. By the grace of my master the great Simbon my arrows have hit her as is befitting, oh king I have come to bring your portion.” He took a leg from his leather sack. These similarities in culture could as well have come about through cultural contacts especially so when one considers the wave of movements from south through East and central Africa brought about by the Mfecane wars.

    Be that as it may, they (the similarities) seem to bear out the claim that the Ekajuk came from far away and journeyed through wars and conflicts to their present day home in Ogoja Local Government Area of the Cross River State. What we should try to do is to trace this origin. I realize in this venture that the arguments I put forward are by no means conclusive. We realize also that the inconclusiveness of these arguments is bound to generate deeper studies on the Ekajuk people. What I have done, therefore, is to make some insinuations that could serve as reference points for further research into Ekajuk history. This I hope will soon be taken up in “more appropriate quarters”.

    0
    0

    Slave System In The Then Bakor Region, In South-Eastern Part Of Nigeria Between 1850 And 1960

    2 months ago in History

     141 total views,  1 views today

    Slavery in one form or the other is as old as human history and there is hardly any society where this institution did not exist. Its ubiquitous nature notwithstanding, the definition of the term ‘slave’ is as varied as the number of scholars who have dealt with the subject.

    Part of the reason for this is that slavery presented characteristics that were unique to the social structure and political economy of each society it existed. Each scholar attempts to articulate characteristics peculiar to the particular society under study.

    Indeed some scholars have even suggested that with reference to some African societies it would be inappropriate to use the term ‘slavery’. 
    The problem of definition has been comprehensively dealt with by countless scholars. We shall only present a synopsis of the main features here.

    The labour and reproductive power of slaves were owned by the master; that the master/slave relationship was based on coercion; that slaves were outsiders who were kinless in the societies they found themselves; and that emancipation was achieved either through an act or process of gradual incorporation into the kingroup.

    On the basis of information obtained during fieldwork between March and May, 2014, this research seeks to highlight the peculiar nature of slavery as it existed in the then Bakor region, in South-eastern Nigeria from the mid 19th century to about 1960. It will be demonstrated that apart from implicit stigma, slaves in Bakor enjoyed equal social, economic and political freedoms as any other citizen.

    The first part of the paper is a summary of Bakor social system especially the lineage system.
    This will provide the context for the understanding of slavery as an institution. The second part concerns the sources of slaves to Bakor as well as the motivation for the acquisition of slaves. The third and final part deals with the process of integrating slaves into the kingroup as well as the status of slaves in society vis-à-vis the free born.

    Bakor Social System
    The Bakor, a sub-group of Ejagham ethnic nationality, consist of eight clans in what used to be Ogoja Province in South-eastern Nigeria. In the modern political arrangement Bakor is in Ogoja and Ikom Local Government Areas of Cross River State of Nigeria. The eight clans are Nkim, Nkum, Ekajuk, Nnam, Abanyum, Nde, Nta and Nselle. The first three clans in the list are in Ogoja while the remainders are in Ikom. The Bakor trace their origin from the
    modern Nigeria – Cameroon boundary. They migrated north-westward until they arrived and settled in their present abode in about the mid 19th century. It was here that their existing social structure was fully developed and consolidated.

    Like the rest of Ejagham, the Bakor practiced, and still practice, a matrilineal descent system within which property was inherited. Indeed matriliny was one of the most prominent cultural features that distinguished Bakor from all her neighbours. The Bekwara, Yala, Ukelle, Mbembe, Mbube and Boki who today live all around Bakor were and still are patrilineal.

    READ ALSO: The Origin Of Ekajuk People In Ogoja L.G.A. Of Cross River State, Nigeria

    The explanation for this is beyond the scope of this research but it may not be too far from the fact that Bakor, with the rest of Ejagham, are a Bantu stock. In fact Ejagham has been described as the ‘most truly Bantu’ of all the groups in the Cross River region. Studies have shown that in most cases matriliny distinguished Bantu from other groups.  In this system children belonged to the mother’s lineage.

    Bakor matrilineage was headed by the most senior male in whose compound were placed a collection of stones representing the spirits of lineage ancestors (Akwansi). These ancestral spirits were responsible for the fertility of female lineage members. The lineage head was responsible for regular sacrifices necessary for this to happen.

    Another condition that required sacrifice was when a member took ill and a soothsayer identified these spirits as being responsible. At the death of the lineage head one more stone was added to the collection and the position passed on to the next man on the basis of seniority. Of more relevance to this discussion, however, is that the lineage was a corporate entity.
    With regards an association or group or corporate entity or members coming together occasionally to perform some rites, or if its head is seen acting as a representative of the group was based on the criteria that it owns property in common. Other anthropologists restrict the term to a property owning group.


    Funeral rites required the presence of all adult members. Of importance was that the lineage owned property in common. Although each member owned his/her own farm, it was their collective responsibility to work on the farm of the lineage head. The lineage thus constituted an important means for the organization of labour. In addition members who earned some income from their farms or trade in excess of their immediate needs were obliged to hand over the money to the head who kept all such wealth in trust for all.

    From this common fund he paid funeral bills, assisted young members to start or increase their farm size, paid bride prize for young males when they got married, settled debts for members and bought slaves when the need arose. What this meant was that the financial strength of the lineage depended on the population of its active members. This explains why measures were taken to check any decline in the population of the lineage. Such measures included regular sacrifices to ancestral spirits to ensure fertility of women as well as the acquisition of slaves
    where the fertility rate was seen to be declining.

    What has been presented so far should not be taken to mean that a man was not entitled to the services of his children or that he owed no responsibility to them. Children grew up under the father’s care. Even in case of a divorce children remained under the custody of the father.
    Since farm labour was gender-based male children accompanied the father to farm and performed whatever tasks that their ages would allow. At the age of adolescence male children were mature enough to perform such tasks as making of yam mounds, staking yam vines and trimming tree branches. Females were always close to their mother helping out in weeding and other less tasking duties.

    As they came of age it was the responsibility of the father to provide them initial seeds to start their own farms. Females got married and joined their spouses as economically independent women. The males got married and built their own huts within the father’s compound. Where there was no space for expansion within the compound the father chose a spot in another part of the village and planted a fig tree where his son established his own
    compound. In theory this was considered an extension of his father’s compound.

    A young man who earned an income, provided his father was still alive, had first of all, to present the money to his father who took just a token and advised him to take the remainder to the brother-in-law, that is, the son’s lineage head.

    Similarly a married woman had to present money from the sales of her crops to her spouse. Thereafter both husband and wife took the money to the woman’s maternal uncle, that is, her lineage head. Thus, although a man was entitled to the labour of his sons and sons-in-law, his children’s savings did not accrue to him but to the children’s maternal uncle. It was for this reason that children did not inherit their father’s property. Their inheritance lay where their savings were custodied .

    It is within the context of Bakor social system presented above that their attitude to slaves should
    be appreciated.
    Sources of Slaves in the then Bakor region

    Those who found themselves as slaves in Bakorland came from diverse origins. For instance, as from 1912 onwards, Ikom (Okuni) traders at Bansara occasionally procured slaves from Sankula middleman and that the slaves came form Yakoro (Bekwara) a few miles north of Ogoja.

    Slaves were also procured from Tivland, Egedde and Idoma in the Benue region as well as Izzi in Abakaliki Division. The bulk of the slaves especially in Ogoja-Bakor came from the slave markets of Idoma and Egedde. Slaves in those markets were housed in a section of the village different from that of their masters.

    A potential buyer first went to the masters’ quarters and was then taken to the slave quarters to make his choice.
    In some societies particularly Izzi, men sold their biological children. In 1958, for example, one Ogbuebule Urom, an indigene of Izzi in Abakaliki L.G.A. of Ebonyi State, sold his six-year old daughter to one Ezamgbo Ode, an Izzi middleman, for a price of £30. The latter resold the girl to a Bansara (Bakor) man, Ashado Njok, for £50 thus making a profit of £20. The girl was rescued by the police when Ashado Njok was negotiating to resell her again in order to make his own profit.

    Indeed, by the middle of the twentieth century the Izzi were the main suppliers of slaves to Bakor land, a practice that caught the attention of the press which reported that in the Abakaliki region of Ogoja Province, East of Enugu in the Eastern region of Nigeria, lied the heart of a flourishing slave traffic …. Fifty miles to the South in the Cross River area inhabited by the Bansara-Ekajuk. Ntara, Mfom, Ngulia and Ntulop tribes, also lied the centre of the slave – buying area.

    Whenever an individual desired to buy a slave two options were available. The first was to take a trip to the source of supply. The advantage of this option was the opportunity it provided for one to make a choice out of the many that were available. The second option for those unwilling to make the hazardous trip on foot was to engage the services of ubiquitous middlemen. In Mfom, an Ekajuk community, for instance, there was one “Agbor Eki” who, with his Aro friend simply known as James Arochukwu, played that role. The middleman collected the money and supplied the slave upon returning from the trip. Apart from having to pay a higher price, the main disadvantage of using a middleman was the loss of the power of choice. The primary motivation for desiring to buy slaves was to increase the population of one’s lineage. This was why Bakor preferred female over male slaves. The age bracket sought after was between six and fifteen years. The older the slave the lesser her chances of reproduction. Sometimes women in their late twenties and thirties were sold off at cheap prices because they were considered barren. The middleman who was concerned with profit margins would go for older ones and, of course, the buyer would have no choice but to accept what had been supplied.

    Circumstances did warrant the procurement of male slaves. This was so when the male population in the lineage was declining. In spite of matrilineal descent system Bakor was a male dominated society.

    Apart from the fact that lineages were headed by men, the political system was male dominated. The interest of the lineage was better protected, if it had members in the village council where political decisions were taken.

    Moreover, a lineage needed active able bodied men who would be able to protect lineage farmlands against encroachment. Age grades and by extension the community at large, cherished a large population of strong men to boost its fighting force in the event of war. For these and many more reasons wealthy lineages found it necessary to have male slaves.

    There was always the presence of violence in the process of slave procurement, some slaves
    were kidnapped or stolen in their tender ages. There was an old woman who narrated how she was lured into slavery at a very tender age. A stranger offered her some oil palm nuts and kidnapped her in the process.

    Similarly, Gboshe Egor who later in life became a wealthy slave owner was kidnapped from his father’s millet farm in Yatche. Even in the slave markets of Idoma, mothers protested vigorously against the sale of their children. Being slaves themselves such mothers were simply ignored or threatened with death. Gboshe Egor referred to above narrated as an encounter he had with a woman whose two sons he bought in an Idoma community.

    The woman insisted on going to wherever her sons were being taken. Their owner gave the approval to have her murdered outside the village if she insisted on following the buyer. Gboshe refused shedding blood and was given the option of paying for the woman which he did. The woman later became his third wife. The Izzi who sold their own children committed acts of violence against such children and their mothers. This was what poverty could lead people into.
    At the root cause of the problem is family instability or a grinding poverty which makes a profit of £30 on a daughter as a means of existence for a whole year. Behind it, too, is a conception of children not as human beings to be
    loved, cherished and cared for, but as pieces of property to be bought and sold like cattle whenever the family is in financial difficulties.

    Contrary to the impression conveyed in the second part of the passage however, men who sold their children were compelled to do so by life-threatening economic hardships, not because they regarded such children as pieces of property.
    In several of such cases the police was able to rescue the victims through the intervention of the victims’ mothers who reported the cases. It was the fear of arrest and persecution of offenders that finally put a stop to the practice. From the foregoing we cannot but agree with the fact that ‘there is little disagreement over the initial importance of violence’ in any system of slavery.
    Slave Status in the then Bakor region
    It can hardly be over stressed that female slaves were more sought after than males. The children of female slaves belonged to the masters’ lineage in accordance with the principle of matriliny. Children born to male slaves, on the other hand, belonged to the wives’ lineages.
    As soon as a slave arrived his/her new home the process of integration into the society began. A female slave usually lived in the household of a female member of the lineage even if the buyer was a male. This couple henceforth became her ‘parents’. The woman into whose lineage she was being incorporated played the role of her ‘mother’ while the woman’s spouse was her ‘father’. She was given a family name like any other child and this became her identity for life.

    The bond that developed between her and her adopted parents and other children in the household was not different from that of free born members of the household. Language was an important instrument of incorporation. A slave who was brought into the community at a relatively tender age would easily learn to speak the new language. The learning process was facilitated by the communal life that was characteristic of Bakor. The entire village was like one large household. Children of the same s*x and age bracket did everything in common. They played together and so on. It was therefore very easy for new comers to learn to speak their new language fluently. After a few years a visitor to the village could hardly identity a new arrival among the children. The stigma of slavery was less
    visible for such individuals.
    It was only those slaves who were brought in as adults that found it difficult to speak Bakor language fluently. These were slaves who carried the stigma for life. Of the five first generation slaves that were at Mfom were never able to speak Ekajuk fluently.
    Even a visitor would easily differentiate them from the rest of the population. A male slave was more usually brought up in the household of his master who become his ‘father’. This category of slaves as well as those female slaves who were married to their masters had the misfortune of being stigmatized for life. The male slave would belong to the lineage of his ‘father’ making it clear to even strangers that the relationship was not biological. The same anomalous situation presented itself when a wife (female slave) was part of her husband’s lineage. In each of these two cases stigma would only become less visible in the third generation.

    Within the family slaves were as loved and cherished as every other member. There is a Bakor saying that ‘blood and sweat are one and the same because both issue from the body’. The interpretation is that just as a free born was the product of one’s body (blood) so also was the slave the product of one’s body (sweat). This meant that both freeborn and slave were one’s offsprings and should therefore be treated equally.

    Also important in the integration process was membership of age grades which played very prominent roles in the political system. Every newly arrived slave would find individuals of the same s*x and age bracket with whom friendship easily developed. As they grew up together and attained maturity they were constituted into an age grade.

    As part of the elaborate ceremony that marked the event the age grade was given a name which was
    retained until it became extinct. Political authority in Bakor was vested on the village council of elders with the Chief (Ntul) being a mere titular head insulated from the affairs of the community by taboos. It was the most senior male age grade that constituted this council. Since membership ofage grades was not based on lineage representation it followed that the village council was not based on lineage representation. People of slave origin or free migrant settlers who were members of the most senior age grade could become important political functionaries if they possessed leadership qualities. Agbor Kunjok, a free migrant settler, and Eyeah Abum (Ochilebe), a slave, who were among the first set of community leaders to be appointed members of Ekajuk Native Court, in Bansara, in 1917 were examples of such individuals.

    What has been said about male age grades accommodating slaves within their fold equally applied to females. Women of slave origin also played prominent roles in society. An individual was considered a bonafide citizen by membership of the three most important groups, namely the matrilinage, the age grade and by virtue of these two, the village community. The lineage was the foundation because within it one’s identity was founded.

    In addition inheritance of land, money and other forms of property took place within it. Of course to enjoy all the rights and privileges of a citizen one had to be a member of an age grade. If there was anything to be shared in the community, for example, meat, drinks or money, each age grade, beginning from the most senior, was given its own lump share. Each thereafter retired to a corner to distribute its share to members. Hence an individual was only
    recognized through his/her age grade. The umbrella body was of course the village community which required absolute loyalty of all citizens. The village council in consultation with the Ntul had the power of life and death
     over all citizens. Community laws took precedence over those of the lineage and age grades. It had the responsibility of protecting the interest of all citizens irrespective of status. At all levels, lineage, age grade and community slaves enjoyed equal freedom with the free born. Nothing illustrates this point better than the story of two slaves who were presented an opportunity of rejoining their biological families but chose rather to remain where they were.
    One was Gboshe Egor who, as stated earlier, was kidnapped from Yatche. His parents were able to trace him years later. Rather than follow them back to Yatche he pleaded to be allowed to remain with his wealthy ‘father’, Efre Etim. He himself later became a wealthy slave owner and through occasional visits kept contact with his biological family.

    Another was the story of a woman in Mfom whose parents in Izzi had sold her off as a teenager. She once went to Onuakpo market in Izzi where she ran into one of her biological aunts who promptly identified her. During that encounter she angrily turned down an offer to be taken to her biological parents insisting that if the parents had loved her they would not have sold her off in the first instance. Her refusal to be re-united with her family certainly stemmed from the fact that she was neither discriminated against nor stigmatized in Mfom where she was comfortably married with children.

    The categorization of slaves in Africa by scholars as ‘outsiders’ who ‘lacked kinship ties’ in their new environment is quite appropriate in the Bakor context in the sense that they were recruited from outside Bakor. However, once fully
    integrated slaves could trace their ancestry to that of the lineage like every other member and it became difficult to identify their original ancestry especially as from the fourth generation. With the possible exception of royalty, where succession was paternal, ones genealogy was of little relevance to political leadership in Bakor. What mattered was the possession of leadership qualities and membership of the most senior age grade. This accounts for the fact
    that most people in Bakor today are not able to trace their genealogy beyond the third or fourth generation. This is unlike some societies like the Efik where genealogy was an important political asset.

    Slaves, however, did suffer some psychological disabilities the sources of which were both external and internal. External negative influences came from neighbouring non-Bakor societies where slaves suffered considerable disabilities. The Yala, Bakor’s northern neighbours, was one of such societies. For example, slaves were segregated in terms of settlement; marriage between a slave and free citizen was ridiculed; slaves were not buried on the same market day as free citizens; and so on. Because cultural practices diffuse easily across cultural boundaries, these negative practices against slaves tended to have some effects on neighbouring Bakor communities. There was, for instance, a Yala migrant who settled in Mfom. Unknown to the host community he had instructed his Yala kinsmen to burry one of his slaves with him. Although this was averted by the staunch resistance of the slaves’ age grade, the incident left a psychological scar on people of similar status. Internally there was always the threat of exposure of the slaves’ foreign origin especially during a quarrel. Although the slave could count on the support of his lineage and age grade, the threat could come from within these groups themselves especially when there were serious contentions.

    However, as studies in other societies have shown it was illegal in Bakor to call, or even make derogatory statements
    which implied calling, somebody a slave. In 2004 Awam Ejong of Akorfono village was fined for this offence. This, no doubt served as a mitigating factor but, this ‘implicit stigma of slavery’ remained with this category of persons for a long time.
    IN CONCLUSION
    Scholarly discussions on the subject of slavery in Africa has been concerned with characteristics that distinguished slaves from free citizens as well as the appropriateness of applying the term ‘slave’ in the African context. It has been demonstrated in the preceding paragraphs that like most African societies Bakor had a sizeable population of slaves. The primary motivation for recruiting slaves was to augment the population of the matrilineage which was an important means of wealth creation. Apart from the initial application of some form of violence in the process of recruitment slaves were loved and cherished. To the lineage slaves contributed to economic viability and to the age grade and community at large they rendered community and military services as occasions demanded. Apart from implicit psychological stigma which in any case was not visible for most slaves, there was hardly a distinction between slaves and free born citizens.

    0
    0

    7 Ways To Enhance Your Personal Development Skills

    2 months ago in Self Development Tips

     134 total views

    Before we begin, it would be very essential to know the definition of the main topic to be discussed herein, which is “PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT SKILLS.” Personal development skills are qualities and abilities that can help you in growing personally and professionally so that you can maximize your potential.

    It is best for you to choose which skills you want to develop through a thorough self-analysis. Make sure that these skills are necessary for advancing in your career or industry while expanding your abilities to become a well-rounded individual.

    Here are some of the most important personal development skills one should learn in order to become more capable and confident.

    1. Learn a new skill or ability :

    Learning a new skill or ability can be very beneficial for you, as it can add more to what you are already capable of by expanding your skillset. This can make you more well-rounded, as well as provide you with the means to deal with new challenges.

    You can either take courses related to your work such as programming or creative writing to give you the added boost in your job. Aside from this, you can also take lessons on topics not related to your job, such as first-aid or entrepreneurship. While these skills may not bring much to the table in terms of your profession, they can still help in situations outside of your job.

    2. Ask others for feedback on your work:

    Feedback is the breakfast of great leaders and high performing teams. Having outside and unbiased perspective on your work can help you figure out the areas where you can do better on.

    Receiving feedback allows one to reflect on their actions and improve upon them, thereby preventing you from making the same mistakes. One can approach a family member, friend, colleague or manager to ask for feedback on a recent project or accomplishment and use their comments and criticisms to find ways to improve.

    3. Observe and learn from others :

    If you have a mentor or a co-worker whose actions and goals inspires you to do better, then you are also able to improve yourself by learning from them. Identify the qualities you admire in them, and try to replicate those in yourself.

    You can also do this by talking to a mentor. They could either be your manager, professor, someone you admire or a professional personal growth mentor. Having someone who you can look up to and learn from can aid you in identifying ways to build your self-development skills.

    4. Expand your network:

    Humans are social creatures. Since our communities impact us across our lives, these social networks are considered essential to one’s professional advancement.

    Interacting with many types of people in the workplace can allow you to learn new ideas. It gives you the chance to understand how to communicate and work with different personality types.

    Expanding one’s network through industry organizations and shared interest groups can also help you meet and develop relationships that can be beneficial to you in the future.

    5. Keep a journal and meditate:

    Self-awareness is an important personal development skill, and the best way to develop it is through journaling and meditation.

    Writing in a journal can help you reflect on recent events, decisions and conversations. You can then use this to assess your progress with your goals, and make the necessary changes based on your reflections.

    Meanwhile, meditation can help you focus on your self-development in a healthy, positive and calm way. Not only can it give you clarity and awareness, but it can also reduce your stress and anxiety. Scheduling a break to write in your journal or to meditate can help you relax and focus.

    6. Face your fears and overcome them:

    Fear is the dream-killer, as it can prevent you from growing and progressing towards your goals. Being taken over by fear will not only keep you from improving, but it will also pull you down the longer you keep being afraid.

    Take a step out of your comfort zone. If you are afraid of public speaking, take a speech class or join a debate group. If you’re too scared to take risks, find a mentor who can guide you to make good decisions.

    As scary as it sounds, you are more likely able to learn and be confident within yourself if you are placed in a situation that will allow you to confront and overcome your fears.

    7. Expand your reading material:

    Reading is one of the best ways one can expand their knowledge and vocabulary. It also helps in keeping one informed of things. By reading more books, one can learn more about the world around them and their relation to it.

    It can also help stimulate your mind by providing new situations that can improve your critical thinking skills. To do this, try to read at least one educational or motivational article a day or one book a month.

    0
    0

    Joke Silva’s Biography, Birthday, Net Worth, Education, Husband, Awards Etc

    2 months ago in Biography

     468 total views

    Joke Silva is a Nigerian actress, director, and businesswoman. Joke began her career in film in the early 1990s. In 1998 she had a major role, starring opposite Colin Firth and Nia Long in the British-Canadian film The Secret Laughter of Women. Here’s her Biography, Age, Net worth, Husband, Awards, Movies, Parents, etc.

    Joke Silva was born in Lagos State, Nigeria, into a family of four children. She attended Holy Child College in Lagos. She is also the pioneer managing director of Malete Film Village, in association with Kwara State University.

    Full name: AJoke Silva Jacobs

    Stage name: Joke Silva

    Date of birth: 29 September 1961

    Place of birth: Lagos

    State of origin: Lagos State